Premarital Sex Essay826 words - 3 pages Sexually active teenagers, in America, are a significant problem that we should be concerned about. A question that teenagers everywhere think about is when to have sex. Many different religions instruct us to wait until one is in a loving marriage to have sex. Not only are religious leaders preaching abstinence, but now public schools are also teaching students on the advantages of abstinence. Premarital sex is a growing, and important issue. Premarital sex is usually the cause of sexually transmitted diseases, teen... VIEW DOCUMENT
Premarital Sex Essay1105 words - 4 pages The new industrial society has made a big impact on the changes of human’s way of thinking. Compared to thirty years ago, people’s lifestyle nowadays is more direct to self- satisfaction. In the 70’s, a lot of people were reluctant to fulfill their own desires because they were afraid of the judgments which came from the close- minded generations. Time flies and things have changed. In the 21st century, we have become to emphasize on the “self” and lift off the weight of society’s judgments. As people start to move toward their complacency, they are more open to what is used to be considered as taboo such as premarital sex. Sexual activity has always been a basic need to human beings. Not... VIEW DOCUMENT
Premarital Sex Essay1455 words - 6 pages Premarital Sex The controversy over premarital sex has never been more profound than it is today. The very mention of the word brings forth radically different reactions. At one time, the very subject of sex was taboo, and then the sexual revolution was introduced as a time when people were unrestrained and open to explore their sexuality. Today, many have become so inordinately apprehensive about sexually related diseases that they perceive premarital sex as totally foolhardy. I am of the opinion that the decision to engage in premarital sex should not be condemned by either faction. The ultimate determination is a totally personal decision that must be thoroughly contemplated with... VIEW DOCUMENT
Premarital Sex Essay - 697 words697 words - 3 pages Premarital Sex Hum..... what do most people think about premaritalsex? If you ask me, I would say go for it. (hehehe) The bad things that I think about premarital sex is that if someone get pregnant before getting marry, most likely they will not be ready to have a child. They will either have to do an abortion and be a bad, crew, mean person or keep it and fuc* up you life.I'm just now 18 years old and i know that I'm not ready for having a kid, I've have friends that is younger than me that has already have a baby girl. The girl and... VIEW DOCUMENT
Premarital sex Essay815 words - 3 pages Our fathers understood that sex was a blessed experience made only for married couples as a way to express their love and desire for each other. However, our youths today think of sex as a fun-thing; they have the belief that it is okay to have sex with who ever one is having a relationship with, and youths engage in several relationships before deciding to settle down. Yet, our fathers were right with their opinion about sex; sex should be a blessed ordeal and not a fun thing. Youths should try and preserve themselves for marriage, but in a situation where a person cannot hold himself he should then try and protect... VIEW DOCUMENT
Morality of Premarital Sex by Religiosity and Generation8743 words - 35 pages Morality of Premarital Sex by Religiosity and Generation Abstract Premarital sex is an issue that most teenagers and young couples face as they enter new phases of their relationship. The purpose of this study is to determine if there is a correlation between acceptance of sexual relations before marriage and religiosity or generation. This study is a cross-sectional, secondary analysis of the variables PREMARSX, RELPERSN, and COHORT (which was recoded into three generation categories), which were extracted from the 1998 General Social Survey (GSS). Data analysis of the three variables was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 10.0,... VIEW DOCUMENT
Pregnant Girls Essay574 words - 2 pages Pregnant GirlsNowadays, teenagers' premarital pregnancy is becoming a widely concerned problem throughout the world. According to the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, there are 4 in 10 girls become pregnant before the age of 20-over 900,000 teen pregnancies in the US annually-and about 40 percent of mothers are under 18 years old. This is a significant number to show that teen pregnancy has become an epidemic, and we need to pay more attention to it. There are three causes leading to teen pregnancy, namely education, peer pressure and family.First, schools don't have enough VIEW DOCUMENT
Research Paper: Is Abstinence of Sex until Marriage Necessary?2221 words - 9 pages Perhaps it is not a big surprise to many to discover that youths as young as fourteen have shown involvement in premarital sex in these past few years, considering that it has almost become a norm in the modern society. According to the Asia News Network, every day that goes by shows four teenagers aborting their fetuses', another two giving birth and an additional two learning that they are suffering from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Based on research carried out in the last five years,... VIEW DOCUMENT
Contraceptives and the Teenage User Essay719 words - 3 pages Contraceptives and the Teenage User For years now a debate has been ongoing concerning teenagers and contraceptives. Some argue that giving contraceptives or even allowing teenagers to purchase them only encourages premarital sex. This attitude, however, denies the simple fact that premarital sex in adolescents has been common throughout the ages. It occurred before effective contraceptives were available, it occurs now despite the well publicized existence of untreatable and deadly diseases like AIDS, and it will continue regardless of public policies restricting access to contraceptives. I believe that to deny teenagers access to every available means of protecting themselves... VIEW DOCUMENT
A Horse Without a Rider Essay1193 words - 5 pages The question of premarital chastity has ensnared the minds of young people in the past and continues to do so with modern teens. Chastity by definition is “the state or quality of being chaste or pure” (261). Why should people result to such archaic practices as abstinence when modern times offer multiple ways to prevent unwanted pregnancies? Many options are available such as contraceptive devices, birth control pills, and abortion; however, along with the fact that these methods are not one-hundred percent effective, they are also accompanied by many physical side effects. Not only is chastity a superior idea for a person’s health, it is also beneficial concerning emotional well-being.... VIEW DOCUMENT
A Lesson Before Dying, by Ernest Gaines1097 words - 4 pages “I never found myself needing that piece of paper,” is a remark actor Johnny Depp made back in 2010 about his relationship with longtime partner Vanessa Paradis. Depp and Paradis have been in a relationship since 1998 and have two children together, Lily Rose and Jack. Another member of Hollywood’s elite, Latin singer Shakira, shares a similar view saying that marriage is like a contract, and that is unromantic. However, celebrities living like Shakira and Depp are also committing fornication and already view themselves as being married; the marriage is just not official. This draws comparisons to Ernest Gaines’ novel 'A Lesson Before Dying'. Two of the novel’s main characters, Grant and... VIEW DOCUMENT
Pemartial -Sex1834 words - 7 pages In our society today, many people are very concern about the sexual activities of our young adolescent. Adolescent are having premarital-sex with out using contraceptives, or abstaining from the act, which are putting them at such high risk.In our society, confronting and managing our own sexuality is difficult for many adolescent. Our religious and cultural heritage has had a strong direct influence on our knowledge, beliefs, and attitude on our sexual behavior. Teenagers need to take into account what are some of the consequences of becoming sexually active. Some teens do not realize that being... VIEW DOCUMENT
Premarital Counseling1068 words - 4 pages According to research done by Williams (2007) the majority of premarital counseling today is offered through churches. Some churches require couples to participate in some type of counseling that uses skill-base programs that incorporate scriptural guidelines before getting married. Couples also encounter other forms of premarital counseling such as: premarital counseling with clergy, engaged encounter, mentor couples, and day-long workshops. The most common premarital counseling within a church is for the couple to meet privately with a clergy person this is known as premarital counseling with clergy. The clergy decides the number of meetings the couple has to go through. For... VIEW DOCUMENT
Marital Stability573 words - 2 pages The divorce rate is declining (figure 1. Trend in Crude Divorce Rate and the Probability of Dissolution). According to research conducted at the BYU Family Studies Center, an increase in the number of first marriages contracted over age 22 has made a major contribution to marital stability and thus the declining divorce rate (figure 2. Probability of Disruption by Age at Marriage). Most of the negative effects of marriage age occur in the teens and early twenties.However, after age 22 the relationship between age at marriage and marital dissolution is not large. Thus, while increasing the age... VIEW DOCUMENT
Divorce Prevention: Traditional Marriage and Covenant Marriage License1498 words - 6 pages Divorces between married couples has adapted to the American lifestyle. Americans debate every year on the best way to lower divorce rates, but instead of reaching a level ground more disputes occur. Divorce rates have reached an extreme high in America through the current times. Divorce harms the family’s mental being, not just the couple, but also the children that are being separated. While, successful marriages have extremely excellent benefits for the couples and also the children. Law reforms in the marriage system are essential to lower the extremely high divorce rates in America. The current Louisiana state covenant... VIEW DOCUMENT
An essay about Per-Marital sex1274 words - 5 pages Pre-Marital SexPremarital sex is a huge problem in society today. People everywhere are not waiting until they get married to have sex. People having sex today are not aware of the consequences that come with having sex. They just think it is fun and there are nothing other than fun comes with having sex.Some people tend to have a lot of sex. They say they do it for the satisfaction. They believe sex is fun. It is perceived to be a great thing from the time one is young. Going to elementary school kids always talked about the day they were going to have sex. They looked forward to it. Where they... VIEW DOCUMENT
Mate... or Wait?4161 words - 17 pages "My biggest regret is..." We have all, at one time or another, heard and even uttered these words as we reflect upon our lives thus far. While everyone has things in their lives that they would like to go back and change, we are often aware of the fact that this is not possible. Let me tell you about a young woman I know. Jenny had remained a virgin and had not dated at all until her senior year at Newport High School when she met Brad, the most incredible guy who, to her, was a dream come true. After a few months of steady dating, she finally gave in to Brad's appeal for sex. It was her first time, yet she became pregnant. Upon informing him of this fact, Jenny was promptly and left... VIEW DOCUMENT
Women as Victims in the Media566 words - 2 pages Women as Victims in the Media One interesting aspect of murder is the way it is portrayed in different forms of media. In particular the way female murder victims have been portrayed over time reflects the social norms of the period. Focusing on the way murdered females were portrayed in various forms of media, beginning in the late eighteenth century in the United States and ending with the present day representations in film it is evident that a traditional style of portraying dead women has continued to pervade society through the twentieth century. Stories, either fictional or based on actual events, began around 1800 portraying women victims as young, unmarried,... VIEW DOCUMENT
Virginity1088 words - 4 pages Concepts of virginity can been seen in all aspects of life, from movies, to books, to even religion. This wide-reaching topic has created many controversies and opinions worldwide. So what exactly is virginity? A person, whether a male or female, is believed to be a virgin, when he or she has not engaged in coitus. However, the value of one’s virginity differs depending on location and a culture’s religion. The perception of virginity also differs depending on gender. In females, virginity has been associated with purity, honor, and worth, whereas virginity in males is often pictured as a “conquest”. Virginity is a subject filled with issues of morality, religion, culture, and gender... VIEW DOCUMENT
The Complexity of Sex in a Complex Culture1196 words - 5 pages The Complexity of Sex in a Complex Culture Sex is a universal irony. Modern society is bombarded by sexual images yet the definition of sex is much more hidden. The words "sex," "love making, and "sexual relations" may be perceived differently from one person to the next. Sex is an abstract word, difficult to define because of a taboo in America against publicly discussing the issue. Thus, because the topic of sex is discussed among friends privately more often than publicly, a certain personal language evolves among individuals when discussing sex. When sexual language is used publicly ambiguities are developed. Culture also plays a key role in how specific... VIEW DOCUMENT
Abstinence1744 words - 7 pages Abstinence: To chose or not to choose? Many teenagers just don't understand the responsibilities that go along with being sexually active, they don't even think about them. But maybe they should sit back and think before taking part. People should not be having sex just to have it, but because they are in love. The only time premarital sex may be okay is in the boundaries of a loving, trusting relationship. Other wise you will most likely regret it when you get older. There is so much feeling that goes into being sexually active most teenagers wouldn't even be able to handle the emotional stress that gets added to the relationship after engaging in intercourse. The... VIEW DOCUMENT
Comparing the Pre and Post Industrial Revolution802 words - 3 pages The life of man before and after the Industrial Revolution was quite different such as, their view on children and the care they received, their views on premarital sex and their marriage patterns, and their how and where they worked. This could be seen with their differences in emotional attachments to their children, their views on having sex before marriage, and their work ethic. Throughout the Pre-Industrial Revolution, their attitude towards children was of poor quality. If you didn’t want or couldn’t afford a child, although risky and illegal, women would in many situations have an abortion or perform infanticide to kill their children. If you did have your child, the parents of said... VIEW DOCUMENT
Premarital Cohabitation1121 words - 4 pages Premarital Cohabitation is a rapidly growing phenomenon in our society today. Cohabitation is defined as two people living in the same household who are unrelated, and of the opposite sex (Kunz, 2012). There are many studies that state disadvantages to cohabitating, before marriage, but at the same time there are many studies stating little to no difference in cohabitating couples and couples who did not cohabitate before marriage. There are quite of few different types of cohabitation before marriage that Kunz (2012) lists her book. A very common type is the “trail marriage,” the opportunity for couples to test out their compatibility in a long-term mindset. This is more typical of... VIEW DOCUMENT
Safe Sex For the Catholic Student in a Public High School948 words - 4 pages Safe Sex For the Catholic Student in a Public High School The teachings of the Catholic Church regarding sex are unequivocal: Catholics should abstain from sex until marriage and then practice monogamy in marriage until they are separated by death. It is the Catholic Church's understanding that all sex in this context is "safe". Hence, in the sexual ideology of Catholic dogma "safe sex" means abstinence and nothing else. And yet despite this, every Catholic in the United States knows what is popularly meant by safe sex. American popular culture is inundated with references to safe sex on television, in popular literature, and in schools, which promote the use of condoms as a way for... VIEW DOCUMENT
Explication of John Donne's The Flea1167 words - 5 pages On the surface, John Donne’s poem “The Flea” dramatizes the conflict between two people on the issue of premarital sex, however, under the surface, the poem uses religious imagery to seduce the woman into having sex. The speaker in this poem is a man, who is strategically trying to convince a woman to have premarital sex with him through the conceit based on a flea, however, the coy lady has thus far yielded to his lustful desires. The speaker’s argument has the form of logic, which contradicts to its outrageous content. In the first stanza, the speaker wants his beloved lady to observe a flea and not think of anything else as he delivers his argument. A flea bites the... VIEW DOCUMENT
Distribution of Condoms in Schools867 words - 3 pages The topic of distributing condoms in high schools had caused a great deal of debate over the last decade. Those that favor condom distribution say that distributing them will ensure teenagers practice safe sex, and the rate of teenage pregnancy will decline dramatically. Those that are against distributing condoms, say that giving them out will encourage early sexual activity and promote the idea that premarital sex is okay. What about letting parents help kids make decisions about their futures? After all that is how parents have been doing things for ages and ages right? There are parents who have actually gone to the Federal Court System, and stated that... VIEW DOCUMENT
Teenage Abstinence: Wise Decisions or Pipe Dreams?782 words - 3 pages Introduction: A Rising Trend.Abstinence among teenagers has been on the rise and has been for quite a while. I couldn't help but wonder what specific reasons young adults had to put off sexual intercourse. Everyone has very different opinions and feelingson sex; usually it's an amalgamation of the opinions of parents, peers, etc. Today, young adults all over the United States are becoming more and more enlightened and aware of the world around them. The free love of yesteryear is gone and has been replaced with more responsibility and long term thoughts and goals. It's very dangerous out there; it seems like common sense that people would want to protect themselves against... VIEW DOCUMENT
Media Portrayals of Promiscuity and a Related Survey1287 words - 5 pages The media is known for displaying a large quantity of violence and sex on television, possibly desensitizing situations that should not be taken lightly in real life. Two previous studies show sexual attitudes portraying entertainment television tend to correlate to attitudes, beliefs, and actions of people in real life. According to a study, television suggests that sexual encounters take place between young, attractive individuals, overemphasizing heterosexuality, and ignoring the fact that major risks are included in such impulsive actions. In "dialogue, characterizations, storylines and themes, television presents adolescents with numerous verbal and visual examples of how dating,... VIEW DOCUMENT
Morality of Sex1117 words - 4 pages One of the greatest issues that people struggle with is the morality of sex in different situations. Perhaps we worry about it so much because it is such an intimate and significant event. From a purely biological standpoint, sexual intercourse is the means for what might be considered the most important biological function of humans – reproduction, the continuation of our species. But, as beings concerned with not only the biological aspects of life but also with morality, we must ask the question: when is it morally appropriate to engage in sex? Let us throw religion to the wind, for the time being. Obviously, different religions (and even different sects of a single religion) have... VIEW DOCUMENT
This is a psychological analysis of the mind of the average teenager1748 words - 7 pages Teenage Rebellion: A Characteristic of the Average AdolescentTeenage rebellion is an observable fact among adolescents throughout the globe ranging from ages twelve to nineteen. It is in the life cycle of adolescence that teens begin to try to demonstrate their mature status and gain autonomy over their lives. The fact that teens are not yet adults often causes them to "act out" (engage in delinquent behavior) in order to show that they are capable of making decisions for themselves rather than letting mom and dad do it for them. "Delinquency increases from early adolescence to mid-adolescence... VIEW DOCUMENT
Birth Control: Available to Teens?784 words - 3 pages Seven hundred fifty thousand teenagers, ages fifteen to nineteen, become pregnant each year (“Facts”). Teenage birth specialists have often debated whether or not teenagers should have access to birth control and other contraceptives. Although some people think teenagers having birth control will promote promiscuity, birth control should be accessible to teens because they will put themselves at a higher risk for disease and pregnancy without it, and more teenage girls would get a high school diploma with it. Those who disagree think providing birth control promotes promiscuity and premarital sexual activity. In the article “At Issue: Birth Control Availability,” the author argues that... VIEW DOCUMENT
The Negative Impact of Sexual Content in the Media1604 words - 6 pages Since birth human behaviour is influenced by what the individual sees and there surroundings, this influence is greatest at a young age and fades as the individual grows in age, but never completely goes away. In today’s society where sex is something that is openly broadcasted in order to promote everything from products to television shows, sex is something that the youth of today are exposed to from an early age. But what effects can this exposure at such a vulnerable stage in life cause? Early exposure to sexual content can increase the likeliness of youth participating in sexual activity by the large amount that they are exposed too, the glorification of sex, the lack of regulation of... VIEW DOCUMENT
thematic essay on identity928 words - 4 pages Thematic Essay on Identity There are many aspects of identity in the poem “Sex without Love,” by Sharon Olds. I can relate my own thoughts to how the author views the subject that she talks about in this poem. There has been a situation in my own life where I was thinking to myself, just as the author was, “How do they do it, the ones who make love without love?” (Olds 740). Having been raised as a well-rounded and disciplined person, as well as religious, I know the discouragement of having premarital sex. It’s not just the immorality that these characters are experiencing that the author is talking about, but they probably have personal issues that have to do... VIEW DOCUMENT
Condom Distribution in Schools Condones Promiscuity and Increase Pregnancy Rates632 words - 3 pages Tuesday, January 7,1997 CONDOM DISTRIBUTION IN SCHOOLS CONDONESPROMISCUITY AND INCREASES TEEN PREGNANCIESA majority of high schools in the United States do not distribute condoms to students.Those few schools that do provide condoms state their reason that in doing so, they will safelydecrease the number of teen pregnancies and cases of sexually transmitted diseases. But ifstudents are exposed to condom distribution, they will get the idea that premarital sex is okay,and will do it... VIEW DOCUMENT
Good Sex? A Critical Review of School Sex Education5381 words - 22 pages Since the 1960s, sex education in North American schools has been surrounded by controversy. Sex education evolved from brief units about anatomy to a preoccupation with the prevention of unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). By the 1990s, sex education occurred within comprehensive interventions that presented it as but one means of promoting holistic health. A critical review searching for a sex-positive perspective reveals that sex education has a... VIEW DOCUMENT
Safe v.s unsafe sex965 words - 4 pages The 'sexual revolution' of the 1960's has been stopped dead in its tracks by the AIDS epidemic. The danger of contracting AIDS is so real now that it has massively affected the behavior of both gay and straight folks who formerly had elected to lead an active sexual life that included numerous new sexual contacts. The safest option regarding AIDS and sex is total abstinence from all sexual contact. For those who prefer to indulge in sexual contact, this is often far too great a sacrifice. But it IS an option to be considered.For those who wish to have sexual contact with folks... VIEW DOCUMENT
Sexual Education in Public Schools2022 words - 8 pages Sex education has been an ongoing debate for decades. In the early 1970’s, twenty states voted restricting sex education from the school curriculum, leaving the District of Columbia and only three states (Maryland, Kentucky, New Jersey), requiring schools to teach sex education. By the mid 1980’s, a deadly disease permitted through sexual intercourse was recognized; the fear of catching a disease sex education quickly became accepted. In 1986, Surgeon General C. Everett Koop felt sex education should start as early as third grade stating, ‘“There is now no doubt … that we need sex education in schools and that it [should] include information on heterosexual and homosexual relationships.... VIEW DOCUMENT
Teenage Sexuality Crisis in Europe1563 words - 6 pages ############################### There are various sentences throught the composition that are cut off and complete ################################## Teenage Sexuality Crisis in Europe Almost every child and parent understand, and fear, what is commonly known as the dreaded “Talk” or even the “Sex Talk”, which is practically a traumatic right of passage through adolescence. This is an experience that often confuses both parent and child, as the parent tries to teach the extremely sensitive subject as painlessly as possible, and the child generally is either curious, indifferent, thoroughly embarrassed, or a combination thereof. To make matters more stressful, how the information is... VIEW DOCUMENT
TV and It’s Effects on Society998 words - 4 pages In the two essays, Don’t Blame TV by Jeff Greenfield and Who Us? Stop Blaming Kids and TV by Mike Males, both authors defend the theory that television has little impact on today’s youth and that other significant factors are to blame for the negative changes in society. While the topics may appear similar, there are many differences in how the authors attempt to defend their theses, making one more successful than the other. In any well written argumentative essay there must be a clear thesis, good supporting examples, some objections along with any rebuttals, the writing should be focused with a natural flow. Firstly, the thesis of Greenfield’s essay is somewhat broad and it is not... VIEW DOCUMENT
Support Same-sex marriage!! There are many reasons we should allow same sex marriage.943 words - 4 pages How would you react if someone told you that you could not marry your boyfriend or girlfriend because you two have the same gender? You would be super upset, would you? That is how same sex couples feel every day. There are not any good reasons to prevent same sex marriage at all, so I think it should be allow!!Most heterosexual people assume that homosexuals have a choice about whom they are attracted to, and that a gay person could be heterosexual if they wanted to. In straight people eyes, same sex marriage is unnecessary because homosexuals could become straight and marry a member of the opposite sex. That assumption is false, and will never be true because gay people have... VIEW DOCUMENT
To Marry or to Cohabit2212 words - 9 pages Over the last two decades, one particular trend in relationship between men and women has becoming ingrained in our aristocracy and despite of its prominent fame and influence among the American populace-an estimated 60% of the total American couples are cohabiters (Stanley, Whitton, & Markman, 2004)--, cohabitation has been consistently associated with divorce and marital affliction (Stanley, 2006). The term "cohabitation" is derived from the root word "cooperate" (indicating a sense of proximity) and the word "habitat" which is a scientific term meaning "a place to live". Assimilating the two words together, cohabitation could be introduced as a kind of relationship between two... VIEW DOCUMENT
Sex Education1048 words - 4 pages Upon all cultures, the most significant is sex education that is considered to be the nourishing criterion for the continuity of the human race. In my opinion, sex education is an essential necessitate that organizes the human civilized sexual features, conserve ones sexual orientation of his/her individuality uniqueness which is a fundamental requirement to oppose traditional social strains.The ordinary way that youngsters obtain the comprehension of sex education is through their guardians, advisors, academic curricula, and public alerting movements. The reason why people study sex education is because they see its major role in reducing diminishing inappropriate attitudes... VIEW DOCUMENT
Parental Supervision and Teen Pregnancy1410 words - 6 pages IntroductionOf all the many things in this universe there still remains an entity that surpasses the rest in power. This entity is the family. It has stood the tests of time as the foundation of human life on this planet. However, there are strongholds forming against the strength of the family. One "stronghold" in particular is teen pregnancy. It disrupts the balance of the family by adding stress and many other problems into the household. The research in this paper will explore the relationship of teen pregnancy and parental supervision from the household to determine if and how they are... VIEW DOCUMENT
Effects of Extramarital Affairs with Divorce on Middle Aged Women1394 words - 6 pages I interviewed Ann (pseudonym), who is a middle-aged woman who is a mother of three and has always been a happy, loving, and positive human being. However when I knew that I was going to interview her, I instantly knew that I was going to focus on the topic of how extramarital affairs (emotional and or sexual relationship a spouse has outside of their relationship) and divorce affects middle aged women. I chose this topic as the effects it has on a woman can be life-changing and can result in them becoming an entirely different person, and in the case of Ann it couldn’t be any more apparent. It is important to acknowledge that a divorce and the effect that it has is one subject matter, but... VIEW DOCUMENT
Contraception and Abortion in 19th-Century America, by Janet Farrell Brodie1256 words - 5 pages The topics of contraception and abortion have been looked upon differently throughout years past in America. The ideas regarding these topics have changed from being nonexistent to being extremely common in today’s world. In the book, Contraception and Abortion in 19th-Century America, written by Janet Farrell Brodie there are descriptions and sources that state how and why people of the nineteenth century used contraception and dealt with abortion. By reading this book, a person can analyze what practices were used for contraception and abortion, whom the chief advocates of reproductive control in the mid-century were, along with the changing access to fertility control at the end of the... VIEW DOCUMENT
Sex Education in Schools: Abstinence-Only Programs2152 words - 9 pages Sex Education in Schools: Abstinence-Only Programs Teenage sexual activity is a major problem confronting the nation and has led to a rising incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and teenage pregnancy. The existence of HIV/AIDS has given a sense of urgency to the topic of sex education. The issue of sex education in schools especially in the formative years has been a subject of intense debate among parents, school officials, health scientists and religious authorities worldwide for a considerable period of time. The debate centers on comprehensive sex education versus abstinence-only sex education in school. Abstinence only sex education is a sex education model that... VIEW DOCUMENT
Sex Education1166 words - 5 pages Sex Education Two drastic Emergency Room cases were handled in 1998 at Mary Washington Hospital. Concerned mothers brought their 12 year old daughters into the hospital thinking they were suffering from severe stomach pain or even appendicitis…both girls were actually in labor (Abstinence, 2002). The United States has the highest teen pregnancy, birth, and abortion rates in the Western world (Planned Parenthood, 2003). Are teens getting enough knowledge on sex and how to prevent STDs and unwanted pregnancies? Another heartbreaking statistic is that teenagers have the highest rate of STDs of any age group, with one in four young people contracting an STD by the age of 21 (Sex-Ed Work,... VIEW DOCUMENT
What are the Effects of Marriage and Religion on African Americans in Urban America?1248 words - 5 pages What are the Effects of Marriage and Religion on African Americans in Urban America? The last three decades have witnessed a “retreat from marriage” in the United States, marked by high rates of nonmarital births, lower rates of marriage, and divorce. Although a growing body of research on the retreat from marriage has focused on its social and economic causes, little attention has been paid to the role that cultural institutions play in furthering or resisting the retreat from marriage. This paper focuses on the role that religious institutions—and the cultural norms and behaviors they promote—play in resisting this retreat among new parents in urban America. Using data from the... VIEW DOCUMENT
Girls Like Us1062 words - 4 pages Girls Like Us Girls Like Us is an intimate portrayal concerning four girls who grew up all with different ethnic backgrounds and various forms of parental guidence. Anna Chau is Vietnames with strict parents and good beliefs, Lisa Bronca is a Caucasion Catholic, De'Yonna Moore is African-American with strong goals who lives with her Grandma and Raelene Cox is a young white girl who comes from a broken home with little parental guidence. Girls Like Us shows examples of structural functionism, and conflict theory, as well as symbolic interactionalism. This movie really intersted me because I actually... VIEW DOCUMENT
The Importance of Sex Education1540 words - 6 pages When are children first exposed to sex? It is hard to control what a child is exposed to with the growing trend of sexual imagery in advertising, television, movies, and in the general public. An article, Children Learn Best by Observing Behavior of Adults, written by Jodie Michalak states “While children will always have their own personality and emotions, they are constantly influenced by their environment” (2013). What and how children learn is a very significant part of how healthy our society will be in the future. School has been an integral part of a child’s progression into adulthood since the 17th century. Schools carefully build the curriculum that is proper for a child’s age... VIEW DOCUMENT
Premarital Sex Essay Examples
1. Last week, the University of Oregon made clear to its faculty: If you say things about race, sexual orientation, sex, religion and so on that enough people find offensive, you could get suspended (and, following the logic of the analysis) even fired. This can happen even to tenured faculty members; even more clearly, it can happen to anyone else. It’s not limited to personal insults. It’s not limited to deliberate racism or bigotry.
This time it involved someone making herself up as a black man at a costume party (as it happens, doing so in order to try to send an antiracist message). But according to the university’s logic, a faculty member could be disciplined for displaying the Mohammed cartoons, if it caused enough of a furor. Or a faculty member could be disciplined for suggesting that homosexuality may be immoral or dangerous. Or for stating that biological males who view themselves as female should be viewed as men, not as women. Or for suggesting that there are, on average, biological differences in temperament or talents between men and women.
All such speech at the University of Oregon will risk your being suspended or perhaps even worse. Orthodoxy, enforced on threat of institutional punishment, is what the University of Oregon is now about.
2. This all began with a Halloween party hosted by tenured University of Oregon law school professor Nancy Shurtz. (I rely on the facts as described in the university’s report; Shurtz has questioned some of the factual assertions in this report, but these ones appear accurate.) Shurtz had invited her students, something law professors sometimes do; about a dozen students came, and about a dozen nonstudents did, too).
Shurtz had told the students that she would be “going as a popular book title”; she didn’t tell the students up front what it was, but the book was the recent (and acclaimed) “Black Man in a White Coat,” a black doctor’s “reflections on race and medicine” (according to the subtitle). Shurtz’s “costume incorporated a white doctor’s lab coat, a stethoscope, black makeup on her face and hands, and a black curly wig resembling an afro.” The university report states that Shurtz “was inspired by this book and by the author, that she greatly admires [the author] and wanted to honor him, and that she dressed as the book because she finds it reprehensible that there is a shortage of racial diversity, and particularly of black men, in higher education.”
But many people find whites putting on makeup to look black to be offensive. I’m skeptical about the soundness of this view: The university report justifies the view by saying that “Blackface minstrelsy first became nationally popular in the late 1820s when white male performers portrayed African-American characters using burnt cork to blacken their skin” and that “wearing tattered clothes, the performances mocked black behavior, playing racial stereotypes for laughs” — but it doesn’t follow to me that wearing black makeup without mocking black behavior or playing racial stereotypes for laughs should be perceived as offensive. Nonetheless, it is a fact (though one that Shurtz apparently didn’t know) that many people do, rightly or wrongly, view this as offensive. (For more on this, see this post.)
And this perceived offensiveness yielded a huge uproar at the law school. According to the report, the uproar was partly students’ immediate reaction and partly a result of the administration’s and other faculty members’ discussing the matter extensively at school, including in classes.
Moreover, the report notes that, as part of the uproar, students said things of which the administration disapproved: The report specifically notes that students used “other offensive racially-based terminology during class times in the context of discussing this event and broader racial issues.” It related that “some of the witnesses reported that the students’ reactions to the event were racially insensitive or divisive.” And it apparently viewed such statements as relevant to whether Shurtz’s own speech was properly punished.
3. So we have speech, at a professor’s home, but at a party to which she had invited her students, which in turn leads to speech by various people at the law school. (There’s no doubt that wearing an expressive costume is treated as equivalent to speech under First Amendment “symbolic expression” purposes.) Some of both kinds of speech are interpreted as expressing offensive messages related to race. What does the university do about this?
The university suspends Shurtz; and then, last week, it releases a report concluding that Shurtz’s speech is indeed properly subject to discipline. The speech, the report concludes, was “harassment,” which violates university policy. Indeed, the report concludes that federal law requires universities to suppress such speech: The report expressly says that “Discriminatory Harassment under the University’s policies is directly comparable to racial or sexual harassment under Title VI or Title VII. ‘[T]he existence of a racially hostile environment that is created, encouraged, accepted, tolerated or left uncorrected by a recipient also constitutes different treatment on the basis of race in violation of title VI.’”
Now when you hear “harassment,” you might think of, say, targeted insults, or perhaps sexual extortion. But “harassment” has become a vastly broader term than that: Simply wearing a costume that offends people based on race is, according to the university, “harassment.”
How is this so? Well, because the use of black makeup “has a very negative racial history and connotations,” it “operated to unreasonably differentiate between students of color and other students.” And that, coupled with people’s reactions to the speech, created a “hostile environment”:
The law school environment has become hostile, with discussions and strong conflicts of opinion taking place within the classrooms and on the law school social media pages. The reactions to the event and the students’ conflicts have required other teachers to take time from lessons to address the Halloween incident. The open discussions in class have also resulted in racial hostility between the students. The lack of understanding by some students, coupled with an existing lack of diversity in the law school student body, has led to minority students feeling further disenfranchised from their classmates and the school. Some students have been missing class, avoiding the law school, and changing their study habits in an attempt to avoid the resulting negative environment. Based on both the reaction and lack of reaction from other faculty and professors, students have also felt a sense of anxiety and mistrust towards professors and faculty beyond just Shurtz, with some students considering and seeking out transfers to other schools. A full list of the range and severity of impacts has been referenced above. We find that this environment was and is intimidating and hostile and has impacted a wide range of students from different backgrounds. It is also apparent, given the unanimous response from the witnesses, that a reasonable person who is similarly situated would have experienced such an effect.
And, of course, nothing here is limited to the use of black makeup or even just of racially offensive expression. The harassment policy, the university report notes, bans conduct that creates a “hostile environment” based on “age, race, color, ancestry, national or ethnic origin, religion, service in the uniformed services (as defined in state and federal law), veteran status, sex, sexual orientation, marital or family status, pregnancy, pregnancy-related conditions, physical or mental disability, gender, perceived gender, gender identity, genetic information or the use of leave protected by state or federal law.”
Let’s take religion. Say a professor posts something on his blog containing the Mohammad cartoons (as I have done myself); or say that he displays them at a debate or panel that he is participating on; and say that he has invited students in the past to read the blog or to attend the panel. Then some Muslim students, both ones who are at the event and those who just hear about it, get upset. His colleagues and the administration decide to discuss the matter in detail, which fans the flames — something that could happen with the cartoons as easily as it can with Shurtz’s makeup. Under the logic of the Oregon report, such a post would equally be punishable “harassment.”
And, of course, this would be even clearer as to deliberate negative commentary on a particular group:
- Sharp criticism of Islam.
- Claims that homosexuality is immoral.
- Claims that there are biological differences in aptitude and temperament, on average, between men and women.
- Rejection of the view that gender identity can be defined by self-perception, as opposed to biology.
- Harsh condemnation of soldiering (that would be harassment based on “service in the uniformed services” or “veteran status”).
- Condemnation of people who have children out of wedlock (that would be harassment based on “marital … status” and “family status”).
All of these could be punishable harassment under the university report’s analysis, if they generate enough controversy. And this is so even if they are just general political statements, without any targeted insults of particular individuals. The expression of certain views, however linked they may be to important public debates, is forbidden to University of Oregon professors, at least once the views create enough controversy.
4. Now University of Oregon policies expressly talk about the freedom of speech and academic freedom:
Free speech is central to the academic mission and is the central tenet of a free and democratic society. The University encourages and supports open, vigorous, and challenging debate across the full spectrum of human issues as they present themselves to this community. Further, as a public institution, the University will sustain a higher and more open standard for freedom of inquiry and free speech than may be expected or preferred in private settings.
Free inquiry and free speech are the cornerstones of an academic institution committed to the creation and transfer of knowledge. Expression of diverse points of view is of the highest importance, not solely for those who present and defend some view but for those who would hear, disagree, and pass judgment on those views. The belief that an opinion is pernicious, false, and in any other way despicable, detestable, offensive or “just plain wrong” cannot be grounds for its suppression.
The University supports free speech with vigor, including the right of presenters to offer opinion, the right of the audience to hear what is presented, and the right of protesters to engage with speakers in order to challenge ideas, so long as the protest does not disrupt or stifle the free exchange of ideas….
Public service requires that members of the university community have freedom to participate in public debate, both within and beyond their areas of expertise, and to address both the university community and the larger society with regard to any matter of social, political, economic, cultural, or other interest. In their exercise of this freedom, university community members have the right to identify their association or title, but should not claim to be acting or speaking on behalf of the University unless authorized to do so.
Lovely sentiments! But what do they mean? Nothing, when it comes to speech that the university labels “harassment” — which, recall, is apparently any speech that is seen as offensive based on race, religion, sexual orientation, sex, gender identity, and so on, and creates enough of a furor.
The report concludes: “The University does not take issue with the subject matter of Shurtz’s expression, or her viewpoints, but the freedoms under this policy end where prohibited discrimination and/or discriminatory harassment begin.” Actually, to be honest, the university does “take issue with the subject matter of Shurtz’s expression, or her viewpoints,” and concludes that the offensiveness of that subject matter and viewpoints makes it “harassment” and strips it of protection.
Again, contrary to the university’s explicit assurances in its free speech policy, the university report shows that “[t]he belief that an opinion is pernicious, false, and in any other way despicable, detestable, offensive or ‘just plain wrong’” would indeed be viewed as “grounds for its suppression.” Indeed, even the wearing of black makeup is being suppressed on the grounds that it’s seen as “despicable, detestable, offensive or ‘just plain wrong’” (the report stressed that “[a]lmost every student interviewed reported that they knew the costume was ‘not okay’”). The expression of overtly racially offensive opinions would be just as covered by the university report’s logic.
Finally, the report reasons that university professor free speech is limited by the so-called Pickering v. Bd. of Ed. balancing test, under which government employee speech is unprotected if “the State, as an employer, in maintaining the efficiency of its operations and avoiding potential or actual disruption” outweighs “the employee’s interest in commenting on the matter of public concern.” There is good reason to think that the university misapplied this test here, especially in light of lower court precedent (see, e.g., these posts by Prof. Josh Blackman, Hans Bader, and Prof. Jonathan Turley, as well as Levin v. Harleston (2d Cir. 1992)). Given that universities are supposed to be a place for debate and controversy, the tendency of university professor speech to spark debate and controversy — even debate and controversy that many people find offensive or disquieting — shouldn’t strip it of protection in a university community, even if it might be seen as doing so in, say, a police department. But the Pickering test is notoriously mushy, as such “balancing” tests tend to be, so I’ll set it aside here.
Instead, I just want to point out the university’s view that all its assurances of free speech just don’t apply to speech that causes sufficient disruption (even when the disruption stems from the debate that the university itself has fanned). That logic equally covers any controversial speech, even beyond speech touching matters such as race, religion, sexual orientation and the like.
It could apply to speech that interferes with the “efficiency of [the university’s] operations” — by upsetting students or faculty, or upsetting alumni and thus decreasing donations — if it’s seen as unpatriotic, or antiwar, or anti-environmentalist, or anti-animal rights, or sharply critical of one or another political party, or a vast range of other things. Of course, in practice this principle would only apply to speech that is disruptive and at the same time offensive to the university administration’s own political views or at least one department’s views.
For a long time, universities have argued that the public has to tolerate the views of professors, even when those views sharply depart from established moral and political orthodoxy, and even when the views create offense and upset (which indirectly often create disruption). That’s how universities have tried to maintain public support, including financial support from legislators and from donors, in the face of such offensive professor views.
It looks like the University of Oregon is abandoning that position, most clearly as to certain speech on certain topics, but the logic of the abandonment applies far more broadly. And this makes it hard to see why the public should continue to support the university when it sees professors expressing many other views that members of the public find offensive.
5. A few closing thoughts:
a. The report stresses that Shurtz invited her students to the party and that some students felt pressured to come to the party because Shurtz had papers of theirs to grade. (Shurtz suggests that the papers were anonymously graded, but let’s set that aside here.) In my experience as a student, professors’ inviting the class to come to a party was seen as gracious and friendly but not by any means compulsory. Indeed, if students really do feel pressured to come to a party, then that would suggest that universities should just ban any such invitations, because pressuring students into unwanted social interaction would itself be bad, regardless of whether the interactions include offensive political speech.
But in any event, this is no different from the pressure that might stem from a professor’s inviting the class to a debate or to a talk, or mentioning that he runs a blog. Indeed, reading a professor’s blog is likely to be more helpful to a student’s grade than coming to the professor’s party, because it can give the student a better perspective on the professor’s thinking on various topics that might come up in class — not that I want any of my students to feel pressured to read this blog!
And the report begins by saying that “harassment” is “disruptive” and thus punishable, “regardless of the relative power of the harasser” (emphasis added). So even if professors avoid inviting students to their parties, or studiously limit anything they may wear, display in their homes or say at their parties in order to avoid offense to students, the university’s logic would punish (and thus suppress) speech far outside such supposedly coercive social occasions.
b. Some people might view the wearing of black makeup at a Halloween party as too removed from political matters to be protected. But the First Amendment protects humor and artistic self-expression as well as political speech — indeed, if you’re not free to joke about something, you’re not free to speak about it — and so, I think, do basic principles of freedom for the university community, even apart from the purely legal requirements.
And, more importantly, the report treated Shurtz’s expression as related to matters of public concern. The university is thus taking the view that its professors’ speech can lead to discipline even when it expresses substantive views on subjects such as race, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity and the like. That’s why all the examples that I mentioned above (such as blog posts displaying the Mohammed cartoons, statements about homosexuality and so on) could equally lead to university punishment.
c. Some people have defended “hostile environment harassment” rules against First Amendment challenge by arguing that such rules don’t punish isolated incidents of speech but only “pervasive” campaigns of offensive expression. (The legal test prohibits conduct or speech that is “severe or pervasive” enough to create a hostile or offensive environment for a complainant and for a reasonable person based on race, religion, etc.; but defenders of the rules sometimes say that mere speech is generally itself not “severe,” and is thus not punishable unless it’s “pervasive.”) I think this is an unsound defense, partly because even repeated speech is constitutionally protected and partly because preventing speech that is pervasive enough to create a hostile environment requires preventing every instance of such speech.
But the university’s position makes clear that even isolated statements are punishable. Here, after all, there was one professor wearing one costume. Yet because that led other people to criticize (or defend) the costume, the professor’s one-time speech was labeled “harassment” and treated as being punishable.
d. I often hear various speech restrictions defended on the grounds that “harassment” isn’t protected speech. As then-Judge Samuel Alito noted, “There is no categorical ‘harassment exception’ to the First Amendment’s free speech clause.” (Saxe v. State Coll. Area School Dist. (3d Cir. 2001).) But beyond that, it’s important to understand how “harassment” has morphed into basically “any speech that the authorities view as offensive based on race, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, and so on.” Bans on “harassment” aren’t just bans on targeted, unwanted one-to-one speech (such as traditional telephone harassment) or even repeated speech about a particular person (though even such speech about people, I think, is constitutionally protected unless it falls into the exceptions for true threats or defamation).
Rather, they are attempts to suppress the expression of speech that is perceived as expressing certain political, social and religious viewpoints. Remember that when you hear about new attempts to ban harassment, for instance at lawyer social events.
See this post by Prof. Josh Blackman for more (beyond just what he had written in the other post I linked to above).