Chemistry Form 4 Chapter 8 Essay Topics

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Opening Essay

Our modern society is based to a large degree on the chemicals we discuss in this chapter. Most are made from petroleum. In Chapter 7, we noted that alkanes—saturated hydrocarbons—have relatively few important chemical properties other than that they undergo combustion and react with halogens. Unsaturated hydrocarbons—hydrocarbons with double or triple bonds—on the other hand, are quite reactive.

In fact, they serve as building blocks for many familiar plastics—polyethylene, vinyl plastics, acrylics—and other important synthetic materials (e.g., alcohols, antifreeze, and detergents).

Figure 8.1 Common polymers made using alkene building blocks. Upper left, a stainless steel and ultra high molecular weight polyethylene hip replacement. The polyethylene repeating unit is shown in the lower left. Upper middle, shatterproof acrylic plexiglas used to build a large indoor aquarium. The methylacrylate repeating unit is shown in the lower middle. Upper right, common PCV piping used as material being used for sewage and drains. The polyvinylchloride repeating unit is shown in the lower left.

Hip replacement photo provided by:The Science Museum London / Science and Society Picture Library. Plexiglas aquarium photo provided by:Leonard G.PVC pipe installation photo provided by:Steve Tan.


Aromatic hydrocarbons are defined by having 6-membered ring structures with alternating double bonds (Fig 8.2).

Figure 8.2: Aromatic Hydrocarbons.Aromatic hydrocarbons contain the 6-membered benzene ring structure (A) that is characterized by alternating double bonds. Ultradur, PBT is a plastic polymer that contains an aromatic functional group. The repeating monomer of Ultradur is shown in (B). Ultradur can be found in showerheads, toothbrush bristles, plastic housing for fiber-optics cables, and in automobile exterior and interior components. Biologically important molecules, such as deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA (C) also contain an aromatic ring structures.


Thus, they have formulas that can be drawn as cyclic alkenes, making them  unsaturated.  However, due to the cyclic structure, the properties of aromatic rings are generally quite different, and they do not behave as typical alkenes. Aromatic compounds serve as the basis for many drugs, antiseptics, explosives, solvents, and plastics (e.g., polyesters and polystyrene).

The two simplest unsaturated compounds—ethylene (ethene) and acetylene (ethyne)—were once used as anesthetics and were introduced to the medical field in 1924. However, it was discovered that acetylene forms explosive mixtures with air, so its medical use was abandoned in 1925. Ethylene was thought to be safer, but it too was implicated in numerous lethal fires and explosions during anesthesia. Even so, it remained an important anesthetic into the 1960s, when it was replaced by nonflammable anesthetics such as halothane (CHBrClCF3).

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8.1 Alkene and Alkyne Overview

By definition, alkenes are hydrocarbons with one or more carbon–carbon double bonds (R2C=CR2), while alkynes are hydrocarbons with one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds (R–C≡C–R). Collectively, they are called unsaturatedhydrocarbons, which are defined as hydrocarbons having one or more multiple (double or triple) bonds between carbon atoms. As a result of the double or triple bond nature, alkenes and alkynes have fewer hydrogen atoms than comparable alkanes with the same number of carbon atoms. Mathematically, this can be indicated by the following general formulas:

In an alkene, the double bond is shared by the two carbon atoms and does not involve the hydrogen atoms, although the condensed formula does not make this point obvious, ie the condensed formula for ethene is CH2CH2. The double or triple bond nature of a molecule is even more difficult to discern from the molecular formulas. Note that the molecular formula for ethene is C2H4, whereas that for ethyne is C2H2. Thus, until you become more familiar the language of organic chemistry, it is often most useful to draw out line or partially-condensed structures, as shown below:

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8.2 Properties of Alkenes

The physical properties of alkenes are similar to those of the alkanes. Table 8.1 shows that the boiling points of straight-chain alkenes increase with increasing molar mass, just as with alkanes. For molecules with the same number of carbon atoms and the same general shape, the boiling points usually differ only slightly, just as we would expect for substances whose molar mass differs by only 2 u (equivalent to two hydrogen atoms). Like other hydrocarbons, the alkenes are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents.

Some representative alkenes—their names, structures, and physical properties—are given in Table 8.1.

Table 8.1 Physical Properties of Some Selected Alkenes

The first two alkenes in Table 8.1 —ethene and propene, are most often called by their common names—ethylene and propylene, respectively. Ethylene is a major commercial chemical. The US chemical industry produces about 25 billion kilograms of ethylene annually, more than any other synthetic organic chemical. More than half of this ethylene goes into the manufacture of polyethylene, one of the most familiar plastics. Propylene is also an important industrial chemical. It is converted to plastics, isopropyl alcohol, and a variety of other products.

Figure 8.3. Ethene and Propene.The ball-and-spring models of ethene/ethylene (a) and propene/propylene (b) show their respective shapes, especially bond angles.

Looking Closer: Environmental Note

Alkenes occur widely in nature. Ripening fruits and vegetables give off ethylene, which triggers further ripening. Fruit processors artificially introduce ethylene to hasten the ripening process; exposure to as little as 0.1 mg of ethylene for 24 h can ripen 1 kg of tomatoes. Unfortunately, this process does not exactly duplicate the ripening process, and tomatoes picked green and treated this way don’t taste much like vine-ripened tomatoes fresh from the garden.

Other alkenes that occur in nature include 1-octene, a constituent of lemon oil, and octadecene (C18H36) found in fish liver. Dienes (two double bonds) and polyenes (three or more double bonds) are also common. Butadiene (CH2=CHCH=CH2) is found in coffee. Lycopene and the carotenes are isomeric polyenes (C40H56) that give the attractive red, orange, and yellow colors to watermelons, tomatoes, carrots, and other fruits and vegetables. Vitamin A, essential to good vision, is derived from a carotene. The world would be a much less colorful place without alkenes.

Figure 8.4 The bright red color of tomatoes is due to lycopene. 

Photo from : © Thinkstock; Lycopene structure from:Jeff Dahl


Concept Review Exercises
  1. Briefly describe the physical properties of alkenes. How do these properties compare to those of the alkanes?

  2. Without consulting tables, arrange the following alkenes in order of increasing boiling point:

Answers
  1. Alkenes have physical properties (low boiling points, insoluble in water) quite similar to those of their corresponding alkanes.

  2. ethene < propene < 1-butene < 1-hexene

Key Takeaway
  • The physical properties of alkenes are much like those of the alkanes: their boiling points increase with increasing molar mass, and they are insoluble in water.
Exercises
  1. Without referring to a table or other reference, predict which member of each pair has the higher boiling point.

    1. 1-pentene or 1-butene                                                                                                                                                  
    2. 3-heptene or 3-nonene                                                                                                           
  2. Which is a good solvent for cyclohexene? pentane or water?                                                          

Answer
    Concept Review Exercises
    1. Briefly identify the important distinctions between a saturated hydrocarbon and an unsaturated hydrocarbon.

    2. Briefly identify the important distinctions between an alkene and an alkane.

    3. Classify each compound as saturated or unsaturated. Identify each as an alkane, an alkene, or an alkyne.

      1. CH3CH2C≡CCH3
    Answers
    1. Unsaturated hydrocarbons have double or triple bonds and are quite reactive; saturated hydrocarbons have only single bonds and are rather unreactive.

    2. An alkene has a double bond; an alkane has single bonds only.

      1. saturated; alkane
      2. unsaturated; alkyne
      3. unsaturated; alkene
    Key Takeaway
    • Alkenes are hydrocarbons with a carbon-to-carbon double bond.

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    8.3 Alkynes

    The simplest alkyne—a hydrocarbon with carbon-to-carbon triple bond—has the molecular formula C2H2 and is known by its common name—acetylene (Fig 8.5). Its structure is H–C≡C–H.

    Figure 8.5 Ball-and-Spring Model of Acetylene. Acetylene (ethyne) is the simplest member of the alkyne family.

    Note

    Acetylene is used in oxyacetylene torches for cutting and welding metals. The flame from such a torch can be very hot. Most acetylene, however, is converted to chemical intermediates that are used to make vinyl and acrylic plastics, fibers, resins, and a variety of other products.

    Alkynes are similar to alkenes in both physical and chemical properties. For example, alkynes undergo many of the typical addition reactions of alkenes. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) names for alkynes parallel those of alkenes, except that the family ending is –yne rather than –ene. The IUPAC name for acetylene is ethyne. The names of other alkynes are illustrated in the following exercises.

    Concept Review Exercises
    1. Briefly identify the important differences between an alkene and an alkyne. How are they similar?

    2. The alkene (CH3)2CHCH2CH=CH2 is named 4-methyl-1-pentene. What is the name of (CH3)2CHCH2C≡CH?

    3. Do alkynes show cis-trans isomerism? Explain.

    Answers

    1. Alkenes have double bonds; alkynes have triple bonds. Both undergo addition reactions.

    2. No; a triply bonded carbon atom can form only one other bond. It would have to have two groups attached to show cis-trans isomerism.

    Key Takeaway
    • Alkynes are hydrocarbons with carbon-to-carbon triple bonds and properties much like those of alkenes.
    Exercises
    1. Draw the structure for each compound.

      1. acetylene
      2. 3-methyl-1-hexyne
    2. Draw the structure for each compound.

      1. 4-methyl-2-hexyne
      2. 3-octyne
    3. Name each alkyne.

      1. CH3CH2CH2C≡CH
      2. CH3CH2CH2C≡CCH3

    Answers

      1. H–C≡C–H

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    8.4 Aromatic Compounds: Benzene

     

    1 Study Smart www.studysmart.page.tl STUDYSMART CHEMISTRY FORM 4 CHAPTER 8 : SALTS 8.1 Synthesising Salts 8.2 Synthesising qualitative analysis of salts 8.3 Practising to be systematic and meticulous when carrying out activities

    8.1 SYNTHESISING SALTS

    A salt is a compound formed when the hydrogen ion, H

    +

     from an acid is replaced by a metal ion or an ammonium ion, NH

    4+

    Examples HCl + NaOH

     NaCl + H

    2

    O 2HNO

    3

     + Zn

     Zn(NO

    3

    )

    2

    + H

    2

    H

    2

    SO

    4

     + MgCO

    3

     MgSO

    4

    + H

    2

    O + CO

    2

    Complete the table below Metal Ion Sulphate salt (From H

    2

    SO

    4

    ) Chloride salt (From HCl) Nitric Acid (From HNO

    3

    ) Carbonate salt (From H

    2

    CO

    3

    )

    Na

    +

    K

    +

    Zn

    2+

    Mg

    2+

    Ca

    2+

    Fe

    2+

    Fe

    3+

    Cu

    2+

    NH

    4+

    Ba

    2+

    Al

    3+

    Pb

    2+

    Ag

    2+

    INSOLUBLE SALT

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