2013 Printed Student's Stage 12.
Stages 11 and 12 are the advanced levels of the Callan Method, and are appropriate for learners studying at level C1 of the CEFR. Many of the questions within these two stages are designed to elicit opinion, enabling students not only to practise the new language they are learning but also to express their own ideas more freely. Together, Stages 11 and 12 introduce over 1700 new words, expressions and phrasal verbs, and also cover advanced points of grammar that students are expected to know when sitting high-level EFL exams, such as inversions (e.g. “Little did Mary know that we had arranged a party for her birthday”) and reduced relative clauses (e.g. “The man arrested for the crime will probably end up in prison”).
In addition to the familiar Callan Method speaking practice, there are short exercises to revise useful collocations (e.g. “on loan”) and introduce new expressions composed of words already covered in earlier stages of the Method (e.g. “strike a balance”). Stages 11 and 12 also contain special writing sections, in which students are given practical advice on dealing with a number of common text types, such as cover letters, reports and essays – optional homework titles are included for each of these.
These two stages offer today’s higher-level students a great way to keep on improving, and, with the exercises and writing sections, they provide an ideal focus for anyone preparing for an exam either at upper-intermediate or advanced level.
Click hereto read an example of writing practice from Student Book 12
Click hereto see an example of a phrase exercise from the Teacher's Book 11/12
Click hereto see an example of new text from the Teacher's Book 11/12
English in a quarter of the time!
The Callan ® Method was first developed and published in 1960 by R.K. T. Callan.
This edition was published for the international market in 2013.
Authors: Robin Callan, Duncan McLeay
Copyright © Callan Works Limited 2013
Student’s Book – Stage 11
CALLAN and the CALLAN logo are registered trade marks
of Callan Works Limited, used under licence by Callan Publishing Limited
Printed in the EU
Conditions of sale
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise,
without the prior permission of the publishers.
This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not by way of
trade or otherwise be lent, re-sold, hired out or otherwise circulated without
the publisher’s prior consent in any form of binding or cover other than
that in which it is published and without a similar condition including
this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser.
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in association with CALLAN METHOD ORGANISATION LTD.
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ةرايز ىجري ةيبرعلا ةغللاب ةمدقملا هذه ةمجرت ىلع عالطالل
Welcome to the Callan Method
Learning English with the Callan™ Method is fast and effective!
The Callan Method is a teaching method created specifically to improve your English
in an intensive atmosphere. The teacher is constantly asking questions, so you are
hearing and using the language as much as possible. When you speak in the lesson,
the teacher corrects your grammar and pronunciation mistakes, and you learn a lot
from this correction.
The Callan Method teaches English vocabulary and grammar in a carefully
programmed way, with systematic revision and reinforcement. In the lesson, there is
a lot of speaking and listening practice, but there is also reading and writing so that
you revise and consolidate what you have learned.
With the Callan Method, the teacher speaks quickly so that you learn to understand
English when it is spoken at natural speed. This also means that everyone is
concentrating hard all the time.
English in a quarter of the time
The Callan Method can teach English in a quarter of the time taken by any other
method on the market. Instead of the usual 350 hours necessary to get the average
student to the level of the Cambridge Preliminary English Test (PET), the Callan
Method can take as little as 80 hours, and only 160 hours for the Cambridge First
Certificate in English (FCE).
The method is suitable for students of all nationalities, and ages. It requires no
equipment (not even a whiteboard) or other books, and can be used for classes at
private schools, state schools and universities. It is also possible for students to use
the books to practise with each other when they are not at school.
In addition to this, students can practise their English online using the interactive
exercises, which are available to students who study at licensed schools. Ask your
school for details.
The Callan Method in practice
A Callan Method English lesson is probably very different from lessons you have
done in the past. You do not sit in silence, doing a reading comprehension test or a
grammar exercise from a book. You do not have ‘free conversation’, where you only
use the English you already feel comfortable with. Of course, activities like this can
help you, but you can do them at home with a book, or in a coffee bar. In a Callan
Method lesson, you are busy with important activities that you cannot do outside
the classroom. You are listening to English all the time. You are speaking English a
lot, and all your mistakes are corrected. You learn quickly because you are always
surrounded by English. There is no silence and no time to get bored or lose your
concentration. And it is also fun!
So, what exactly happens in a Callan Method lesson, and how does it work?
The teacher asks you questions
The Callan Method books are full of questions. Each question practises a word, an
expression, or a piece of grammar. The teacher is standing, and asks the questions
to the students one by one. You never know when the teacher will ask you, so you
are always concentrating. When one student finishes answering one question, the
teacher immediately starts to ask the next question.
The teacher speaks quickly
The teacher in a Callan Method lesson speaks quickly. This is because, in the real
world, it is natural to speak quickly. If you want to understand normal English, you
must practise listening to quick natural speech and become able to understand
English without first translating into your language. This idea of not translating is at
the centre of the Callan Method; this method helps you to start thinking in English.
Also, we do not want you to stop and think a lot about the grammar while you are
speaking. We want you to speak as a reflex, instinctively. And do not worry about
mistakes. You will, naturally, make a lot of mistakes in the lessons, but Callan Method
teachers correct your mistakes, and you learn from the corrections. When you go
home, of course it will help if you read your book, think about the grammar, study
the vocabulary, and do all the things that language students do at home – but the
lessons are times to practise your listening and speaking, with your books closed!
The teacher says every question twice, and helps you with the
In the lesson, the teacher speaks quickly, so we say the questions twice. This way,
you have another chance to listen if you did not understand everything the first time.
The teacher then immediately says the beginning of the answer. This is to help you
(and ‘push’ you) to start speaking immediately. So, for example:
Teacher: “Are there two chairs in this room? Are there two chairs in this room? No,
there aren’t ...”
Student (immediately): “No, there aren’t two chairs in this room; there are twelve
chairs in this room.”
If the teacher does not ‘push’ you by giving you the beginning of the answer, you
might start to think too much, and translate into your language.
The teacher will speak along with you all the time while you are saying your answer.
So, if you forget a word or you are not sure what to say, you will always hear the next
word or two from the teacher. You should repeat after the teacher, but immediately
try again to continue with the answer yourself. You must always try to continue
speaking, and only copy the teacher when you cannot continue alone. That way, you
will become more confident and learn more quickly. Never simply wait for help from
the teacher and then copy – you will not improve so quickly.
Long answers, with the same grammar as the question
We want you to practise your speaking as much as possible, so you always make
complete sentences when you speak in the lesson, using the same grammatical
structure as in the question. For example:
Teacher: “About how many pages are there in this book?”
Student: “There are about two hundred pages in that book.”
In this way, you are not just answering a question; you are making full sentences with
the vocabulary and the grammar that you need to learn.
Correction by imitation
With the Callan Method, the teacher corrects all your mistakes the moment you make
them. The teacher corrects you by imitating (copying) your mistake and then saying
the correct pronunciation/form of the word. For example, if you say “He come from
Spain”, the teacher quickly says “not come - comes”. This correction by imitation
helps you to hear the difference between your mistake and the proper English form.
You should immediately repeat the correct word and continue with your sentence.
You learn a lot from this correction of your mistakes, and constant correction results
in fast progress.
In the lesson, the teacher uses contractions (e.g. the teacher says “I don’t” instead of
“I do not”). This is because it is natural to use contractions in spoken English and you
must learn to understand them. Also, if you want to sound natural when you speak,
you must learn to use contractions.
Every school is different, but a typical 50-minute Callan lesson will contain about 35
minutes of speaking, a 10-minute period for reading, and a 5-minute dictation. The
reading practice and the dictation are often in the middle of the lesson.
In the reading part, you read and speak while the teacher helps you and corrects
your mistakes. In the dictation, you practise your writing, but you are also listening
to the teacher. So, a 50-minute Callan lesson is 50 minutes of spoken English with
Although the Callan Method emphasises the importance of speaking practice, this
does not mean chatting (free conversation). You learn English quickly with the Callan
Method partly because the lessons are organised, efficient, fast and busy. There is
no time wasted on chatting; this can be done before or after the lesson.
Chatting is not a good way to spend your time in an English lesson. First, only some of
the students speak. Second, in a chat, people only use the English that they already
know. Third, it is difficult for a teacher to correct mistakes during a conversation.
The Callan Method has none of these problems. All through the lesson, every
student is listening and speaking, practising different vocabulary and structures, and
learning from the correction of their mistakes. And nobody has time to get bored!
Repeat, repeat, repeat!
In your native language, you sometimes read or hear a word that you do not already
know. You usually need to read or hear this new word only once or twice in order
to remember it and then use it yourself. However, when you are learning a foreign
language, things are very different. You need to hear, see and use words and
grammatical structures many times before you really know them properly. So your
studies must involve a system of revision (repeating what you have studied before).
This is absolutely essential. If there is no system of revision in your studies, you will
forget what you have studied and will not be able to speak or understand better than
In every Callan Method lesson, of course you learn new English, practise it, and
progress through your book. However, you also do a lot of revision so that you can
really learn what you have studied. Your teacher can decide how much revision your
class needs, but it will always be an important part of your studies.
Also, because there is a lot of revision, it is not important for you to understand
everything the first time; it gets easier. The revision with Callan is automatic and
systematic. Every day you do a lot of revision and then learn some new English.
Revision in reading and dictation too
The reading and dictation practice in the lessons is part of Callan’s systematic revision
as well. First, you learn a new word in the speaking part of the lesson; a few lessons
later, you meet it again when you are reading; finally, the word appears in a dictation.
This is all written into the Callan Method; it happens automatically.
Correcting your dictations
With the Callan Method, there is little or no homework to do, but it is very important
that you correct your dictations. These are printed in your book and so you can easily
correct them at home, on the bus, or wherever. It is important to do this because it
helps you to learn the written forms of the words you have already studied in earlier
Your first lessons with the Callan Method
During your first lesson with the Callan Method, all of the questions and some of the
vocabulary are new for you; you have not done any revision yet. For this reason, the
teacher may not ask you many questions. You can sit and listen, and become more
familiar with the method - the speed, the questions, the correction etc.
History of the Callan Method – Robin Callan
Robin Callan is the creator of the Callan Method.
He owns the Callan School in London’s Oxford
Street. He also runs Callan Publishing Limited, which
supplies Callan Method books to schools all over
Robin Callan grew up in Ely, Cambridgeshire,
England. In his early twenties, he went to Italy to
teach English in Salerno. Although he enjoyed teaching, Robin thought that the way
in which teachers were expected to teach their lessons was inefficient and boring.
He became very interested in the mechanisms of language learning, and was sure
that he could radically improve the way English was taught.
He remained in Italy and started to write his own books for teaching English. He
used these in his own classes and, over the following ten years, gained an immense
amount of practical experience and a reputation for teaching English quickly and
When he returned to England, he opened his school in Oxford Street. As the method
became more and more popular with students, the school grew and moved to larger
premises. Robin continued to write his Callan Method books, and today the method
is used by schools all over the world.
Robin Callan has always been passionate about English literature, especially poetry.
For this reason, he bought The Orchard Tea Garden in Grantchester, near Cambridge,
which attracts thousands of tourists each year. Throughout the 20th century, it
was a popular meeting place for many famous Cambridge University students and
important figures from English literature, such as Rupert Brooke, Virginia Woolf and
E.M. Forster. Today, it is also home to the Rupert Brooke Museum.
Mr Callan now lives in Grantchester, but still plays an active role in the management
of the Callan School in London.
The Callan School in London’s Oxford Street
The largest private school in London
The Callan School in Oxford Street is the largest private school in London teaching
English as a foreign language. Depending on the time of year, the school employs
between 60 and 100 teachers and has an average of 1600 students passing through
its doors every day. This number rises to more than 2000 in the middle of summer,
similar to a small university.
Please visit the following websites for more information:
Callan Method http://www.callan.co.uk
Lots of information, including a list of schools around the world that use the method
Callan School London http://www.callanschoollondon.com/en/callan-school
All you need to know about the largest private English language school in London
How Callan Method Stages compare to CEFR* levels
and University of Cambridge General English exams
* Common European Framework of Reference
It is difficult to compare the Callan Method books directly with the CEFR levels and
Cambridge exams, but below is an approximate guide.
Introduction to Stage 11
In Stages 11 and 12, listening and speaking practice is done in the same lively
manner as in the other Callan Method stages, and you also continue to do readings
and dictations. However, Stages 11 and 12 are different from Stages 1–10 in two
ways: they contain extra exercises to practise vocabulary, and they have sections to
help you with writing.
These introduce new words, phrases and expressions, and they also practise
vocabulary you have learned already. Each one takes about five minutes to do.
Do not worry if you are not sure about the answers; the idea is that you will learn
by firstly doing an exercise and then going through it with your teacher. They are
exercises, not tests.
There are three kinds of exercise – phrase exercises, word-building exercises, and
word pool exercises.
In the phrase exercises, you choose one word (from a choice of four) to fit in a gap in
a sentence. The exercises practise new uses of words you already know, or introduce
common phrases and expressions with words you have learned before.
In the word-building exercises, you are asked to take a word you have learned before
(e.g. “real”, from Stage 4) and make a new word from it (e.g. “realistic”).
Finally, in Stages 11 and 12 you will sometimes come across a word pool – a list of
15 words that the teacher will introduce to you. A few lessons after this, there will be
a word pool exercise, which checks whether you have remembered the words. Each
exercise has 15 sentences with a word missing. You have to complete each sentence
by choosing the correct word from the word pool.
In total, there are eight writing sections in Stages 11 and 12. They introduce you
to various common types of writing that we all meet in everyday life, and which
also appear in English language exams. In addition to giving you helpful advice, the
sections provide examples of each type of writing, and also homework that you can
do to practise outside school.
941 bump bumpy bump into (run into)
Do very tall people have to be careful not to bump their heads when they
go through doorways? Yes, very tall …
Is the road outside this building bumpy? Yes, … ~ No, …
Do you often bump into (run into) friends of yours when you’re walking
around town? Yes, … ~ No, …
Name a recent scientific advance that you think is absolutely incredible?
I think …
Why do you think lottery tickets sell in such large numbers in spite of the
fact that the odds of winning are so incredibly small? I suppose … in spite
of the fact … because …
globe global warming major
minor majority minority
Name me a sporting event that’s watched around the globe. … is a
sporting event …
Do you consider global warming a major or minor problem? I consider …
942 And do you think the majority of people agree with your view, or only a
minority? I think …
pedal adjust ensure
What do we rest our feet on when we’re riding a bicycle? We rest
… pedals …
In a car, what do we have to adjust to ensure our feet can rest on the
pedals easily? In a car, we have to adjust the seat to ensure …
Why should we always ensure that our spelling is correct before sending
an email at work? We should … because poor
spelling can make a bad impression on people
make it amateur
If you had a train to catch from the nearest station in ten minutes’ time,
do you reckon you could make it if you left right now? Yes, if …, I think
I could … ~ No, if …, I don’t think I could …
What percentage of amateur actors do you reckon manage to make it
professionally? I reckon … of amateur … professionally
album folder release
What’s a photo album? A photo album is a folder
or book containing photographs
Is there any band whose albums you buy as soon as they’re released?
Yes, … ~ No, …
943 aware go on
What does one have to do if one wishes to be aware of what’s going on
in the world? If one wishes to be …, one has to …
import export commodity
Is oil a commodity that this country mostly imports or exports? Oil is …
Why is a growth in exports good for a country? A growth … it strengthens
the economy of the country
issue on a … basis filthy
What, in your opinion, are the most serious issues facing mankind at the
moment? In my opinion, the most …
Do most magazines produce new issues on a weekly or monthly basis?
Most … on a monthly basis
Why does the government have to issue new banknotes on a regular
basis? The government … the old ones get filthy and torn
grand magnificent dress up
What do we mean by a grand occasion? By …, we mean a large and
magnificent event such as a big wedding
Do the guests at such events dress up? Yes, …
944 Have you ever gone to a party dressed up as a famous person or
character? Yes, … ~ No, …
Do you think online betting should be legal or illegal? I think …
What are the two common types of plug? The two … a plug in a bath
or sink, and an electrical plug
If you accidentally drilled through a water pipe in your house, how could
you plug the hole until the plumber arrived? If I …, … by using special
tape, a piece of cloth etc.
Do you plug in your mobile every night to charge it? Yes, … ~ No, …
What’s the opposite of the verb “plug in”? The opposite … “unplug”
Do you personally find online shopping a more and more attractive
option these days? Yes, … ~ No, …
Do people working in sales often have targets they have to meet each
month? Yes, …
945 If you were opening a clothes shop in this town and wanted to target
young adults, whereabouts would you locate it? If I were …, …
The English language contains many phrasal verbs. A phrasal verb is a
phrase consisting of a verb with one or two other words after it. The
meaning of a phrasal verb is often not clear at all from simply looking at
the verb. One example of this is “give up”, meaning to stop a habit. The
meaning has no obvious connection with the idea of giving – you need to
learn it separately. Other examples of phrasal verbs are “get along with”,
meaning to have a good relationship with someone, and “set up”, meaning
to start an organization.
In Stage 11 of the Callan Method, there are a lot of common phrasal
verbs. You should learn them in exactly the same way that you would
learn any other word or expression in the language. Do not waste time
trying to find a connection between the meaning of the verb and the
meaning of the phrasal verb.
Give me an example of a phrasal verb, please. … “give up” … “get
along with” … “set up” etc.
What percentage of the food you buy do you reckon ends up in the bin?
I reckon …
authority resent topic
Why do you think some people resent those in authority, such as the
government, the police and bosses? I think … because …
Would you say you were an authority on any particular topic?
Yes, I’d say … ~ No, I wouldn’t say …
Are you positive you shut your door properly when you left home today?
Yes, … ~ No, …
call for violence
If you were planning to see a film with a friend who lived close to the
cinema, would you arrange to call for them on the way to the cinema or
meet them there? If I were planning to …, I’d …
In your view, are tougher laws called for in this country to deal with
violence in society? Yes, in my view, … ~ No, in my view, …
Would a gift of £1,000 make a significant difference to your lifestyle?
Yes, a gift … ~ No, a gift …
At what time of the day do you feel most at peace with the world?
I feel most …
Did you encounter any problems on your way here today? Yes, I
encountered … ~ No, I didn’t encounter …
947 after all
Give me an example of “after all” used to express that something
eventually happened even though we thought it was not going to
happen. I was convinced she wouldn’t arrive in time
for the wedding ceremony but she made it after all
When an event you’ve been looking forward to is called off, how do you
feel? When an event … called off, I feel …
How many bedrooms does a medium-sized house in this town have?
A medium-sized house …
lane motorway overtake
What should the outside lane on a motorway be used for? The outside
lane … for overtaking
dash cut short
What do people mean during a conversation when they say “Sorry, I must
dash”? When people say …, they mean they have to
leave in a hurry and so cut short the conversation
Give me a sentence with the word “since” used with the meaning of
“because”. We’ll have to do the job ourselves, since it
seems impossible to find anyone else to do it for us
Phrase exercise 1
From the four options given with each sentence, choose the one word
that fits correctly in the gap.
1 Just call me on my mobile if you find yourself … difficulty at all.
( a / with / some / in )
2 The Italian and Spanish languages are … related; they both come
( closely / greatly / nearly / similarly )
3 I don’t … anything against inviting our landlord to the party;
( say / hold / have / do )
I just think it’s unusual.
4 I was left … when John told me his new plans for the business.
( speechless / voiceless / hopeless / useless )
5 I was so sure Sophie was perfect for this job, but it … I was
wrong. ( is appearing / has appeared / would appear / can appear )
6 I’ve met your boyfriend before, actually; … it happens, we used
( so / as / like / if )
to go to the same school.
7 The flat was on the small … but he decided it was worth buying
( sort / side / sale / size )
8 You can go to the pub now and I’ll catch up … you after I’ve
( to / for / at / with )
finished at the gym.
9 As an actor, he was always famous for … himself into the roles he
( throwing / selling / forming / losing )
10 I could never go climbing; I’ve got no … for heights.
( sense / head / eye / feel )
11 We’ll need to work … the clock to get this job done by the end of
( around / throughout / over / towards )
949 12 He achieved great success in business, but … the expense of his
( at / with / for / against )
13 I made so many mistakes in the test; I’m not really on the …
( ball / game / boot / goal )
14 We all formed a queue and the doctor dealt with us … turn.
( by / about / in / over )
15 If the Chinese restaurant is closed, the … thing would be the
Indian, in my view. ( second rate / runner up / close by / next best )
The flood was causing enormous damage,/ so it came as a huge relief/ when the
rains stopped./ Why not just go ahead/ and lie down?/ You should take a painkiller
too./ Avoiding fried food/ and unhealthy desserts/ should help you lose some
weight./ It’s our belief/ that this tour will be a success;/ it could even make him/
one of the wealthiest musicians in the world./ My brother’s preference/ for not
following recipes when he cooks/ is something he got from our father./ Don’t
splash your sister;/ it’s naughty!/ As we lay down our towels on the beach,/ we
noticed that/ the yacht race going on nearby/ had attracted loads of spectators./
Rejoice, shave, affair, cure, creep.
950 Word pool 1 (nouns)
doll knuckle tram
glove calendar fringe
spark fountain chapter
pirate cable tractor
peach moustache diagram
may well might well could well
When we put the word “well” immediately after the modals “may”, “might”
or “could”, it changes their meaning from “perhaps” to “probably”.
What happens when we put the word “well” immediately after the
modals “may”, “might” or “could”? When we put …, it changes their
meaning from “perhaps” to “probably”
Give me an example, please. He loves Spain so much that I honestly
think he may well end up settling there
What are the three forms of “quit”? The three forms of
“quit” are “quit, quit, quit”
951 Make a sentence with the verb “quit”, please. I finally quit my job
yesterday. She’d love to be a
non-smoker but she’s never quit successfully.
Do you sympathize with people who start their own company but then
go bankrupt? Yes, … ~ No, …
Why or why not?
suicide commit suicide
Is it illegal in your country to help someone to commit suicide? Yes, it’s …
~ No, it isn’t …
by no means not by any means
Give me a sentence containing the words “by no means” or “not by any
means”. She is by no means the worst in the class.
She isn’t by any means the worst in the class.
hand out handout give out
Is it common to see people handing out (giving out) leaflets to passers-by
in the street in this town? Yes, … ~ No, …
What do we mean by a handout in a business meeting? By a handout …,
we mean a document that is given
to all the people attending the meeting
952 acquire automatic
By learning the language of a country, do you think one automatically
acquires some knowledge of that country’s culture? Yes, … ~ No, …
Do people in jobs that require hard physical labour often need to retire
earlier than those in office jobs? Yes, …
If somebody is sentenced to a certain period of time in prison, do you
agree they should be released early for good behaviour? Yes, … ~ No, …
catch up tricky
Supposing you missed two weeks of lessons, would it be tricky to catch up
with the rest of the students in the class? Yes, supposing …, it’d be …
~ No, supposing …, it wouldn’t be …
nasty The … “nasty”
What’s the opposite of “nice”? There was a nasty smell
Give me an example, please. coming from the hotel kitchen
Why do children find long car journeys hard to endure?
Children … because they find it
difficult to sit still for a long time
edit editor publish
What does an editor in a publishing company do? An editor … edits books
(magazines etc.), making changes to the text and
correcting mistakes so that the work is ready to be published
Name a country that uses a lot of spices in its cuisine. India …
Do you like spicy food? Yes, … ~ No, …
Would you agree that women generally show their affection for others
more easily than men? Yes, … ~ No, …
chemist chemistry field
If someone says they work as a chemist, what kind of work do they do?
If …, they either work as a scientist
in the field of chemistry, or they work
in a chemist’s selling medicine to the public
954 domestic appliance
Which domestic appliance do you feel saves people the most time?
The domestic appliance I feel … is …
If there’s a lack of harmony in a marriage over a long period, what can it
lead to? If …, … divorce
occur slippery motorist
Why do more road accidents occur when it rains? More … roads are
slippery, and motorists find it difficult to see
Does it ever occur to you that perhaps you should adopt a healthier
lifestyle? Yes, it sometimes … ~ No, it never …
Make a sentence with the word “cute”, please. The baby looked so cute
with a ribbon in her hair. I thought the shop
assistant was cute but I was too shy to introduce myself.
What’s a beast? A beast is a large and
dangerous animal, such as a gorilla
955 grain particle
What do we mean by a grain of sand, or a grain of rice? By …, we mean
one small particle of …
Does your country produce the majority of its grain domestically or does
it import most of it? My country …
hip This part … the hip
What part of the body’s this?
apartment inhabitant considerate
Do the majority of the inhabitants of your town live in houses or
apartments? The majority …
Why is it particularly important for people who live in apartments to be
considerate towards their neighbours? It’s particularly …
The verb “to draw” is sometimes used with a basic meaning of “to move”.
For example, we can say that a train draws out of a station, or that winter
is drawing near.
Give me an example of the verb “draw” used with the basic meaning of
“move”, please. The car drew away from the traffic lights very slowly
Tell me briefly about a marvellous vacation you’ve had, or would like to
have. A marvellous …
956 range equator annual drama
Do countries near the equator have a very limited annual temperature
range? Yes, …
Which type of film usually produces a wider range of emotions: a drama
or a comedy? A … usually …
Is there anyone in this room wearing a necklace or bracelet? Yes, … ~ No, …
household be comprised of chore
How many people is your household comprised of? My household …
What’s your least favourite household chore? My least favourite …
Name some situations in which it’s common for people to panic.
Some situations in which … are during
an exam, when performing on stage etc.
bark footstep burgle burglar
If guard dogs hear footsteps in the middle of the night, do they start
barking loudly? Yes, if …
Do burglars tend to avoid burgling properties that have guard dogs?
Yes, burglars …
957 shrink – shrank – shrunk market
What causes certain clothes to shrink when they’re washed?
Washing at an excessively high temperature causes …
Do you think the market for new cars in your country has shrunk in recent
years? Yes, … ~ No, …
What do I mean if I say “John had a puzzled expression on his face”?
If you …, you mean he looked confused
peak summit considerable
What do we call the top of a mountain? We call … the peak or summit
In this part of town, is there a considerable increase in traffic during peak
hours? Yes, … ~ No, …
feel like feel up to
What do you feel like doing this evening? I feel like …
If you had a nasty cold one weekend and didn’t feel up to going out,
what would you do instead? If …, I’d …
Do you feel frustrated when you make silly mistakes? Yes, …
958 pull in (draw in) pull out (draw out)
How would you feel if a train you’d hoped to catch was pulling out from
the platform just as you arrived? If …, I’d feel …
If you dyed your hair a completely different colour, would it transform
your appearance? Yes, …
Under what circumstances do the police decide to restrain someone
physically? The police decide …
In a newspaper, where’s the sports section usually located? In …, …
at the back
What do we call the final section of an essay? We call … the conclusion
Why do some people have a preference for wearing glasses rather than
contact lenses? Some people …
959 Word-building exercise 1
For each sentence below, change the word printed at the beginning so that it
fits correctly into the gap. Put your answer on the right.
e.g luck She was … to win the game. lucky
1 visit There was something to eat for the majority of
…, but not everyone.
2 deep The length of the swimming pool isn’t
important; it’s the … we need to know.
3 centre The property is being built quite …, near the
main railway station.
4 real The painting was so … that, at first, I thought it
was a photo.
5 fashion He thinks those trousers make him look young
and …, but they don’t.
6 account She’s thinking of becoming an … as she’s very
good with numbers.
7 culture This film was not a great financial success, but
it is of great … interest.
8 large I’m thinking of … the photo you took and
putting it up on the wall of the living room.
9 part Our efforts to gain the support of the local
population have only been a … success.
10 circle He claims he saw a large … object with lights
on it flying over his garden last night.
11 forget I’m rather … sometimes so I think I’d better
write the address down.
12 bore A good book always helps to relieve the … of a
long train journey.
13 popular The … of the show made all the actors famous
around the world.
14 stupid Their behaviour was a result of … rather than
any desire to cause damage.
15 decide I’m normally fairly … but I really don’t know
what to do in this case!
961 General advice for writing
Please note: There are writing homework titles at the end of this book.
punctuation linking words
When we create a piece of writing, we should:
• make a simple plan on paper before we start to ensure that
we include all the information we need to, and that our
information is clearly organized;
• check our punctuation, spelling and grammar when we’ve
From: Douglas Freeman (1) Remember to have an
To: Samuel Bradley introduction paragraph that
Subject: Refund request tells the reader why you’re
writing and what they’re
going to read about.
Dear Mr Bradley
I am writing to complain about a T-shirt that I bought from
your Kingsley Street store on 22nd November, and to make
a request for a refund.
962 The T-shirt in question is red, medium size, and from your
“Forever” range. After wearing the garment once, I washed
it at 40˚C, the recommended temperature. However, during
the wash, the T-shirt lost much of its colour and is now pink.
Moreover, it shrank to almost half its original size and is
(3) Avoid using I returned to your store on 25th November but I was (2) Separate
contractions informed by a member of staff that I was not entitled to a your writing
when you want refund owing to the fact that the T-shirt had already been into different
to use a formal washed. I explained the situation but, although the lady paragraphs
style. To decide was very polite, she did not offer me my money back. I was so that the
whether a advised instead to contact you directly if I wished to take the reader knows
piece of writing matter further. when you’re
should be changing
written in a I have been a loyal customer of Bradley & Co. for several subject, or
formal style years and have never had any issue with the products I have starting a new
or not, think bought. However, I hope you are able to understand the point.
about who will frustration that I feel in this case, and that you will consider
read it. this request for a full refund.
Yours sincerely (4) Use linking words and
expressions to connect your
ideas together clearly.
When we create a piece of writing, like a letter or an essay for example,
how can we ensure that we’ve included all the information we need to,
and that our information is clearly organized? When …, … by making a
simple plan on paper before we start
Why is it important to separate our writing into different paragraphs?
It’s … so that the reader knows when
we are changing subject, or starting a new point
What must we remember to put at the beginning of any piece of
writing? We … an introduction paragraph …
Why? So that the reader knows why we’re
writing and what they’re going to read about
When should we not use contractions in writing?
We … when we want to use a formal style
963 How can we decide whether a piece of writing should be written in a
formal style or not? We can … by thinking about who will read it
How can linking words and expressions help with writing?
Linking … because they connect our ideas together clearly
Give me four examples of linking words or expressions, please.
however; consequently; in order to; owing to
When we’ve finished writing, what kinds of things should we check?
When …, … our punctuation, spelling and grammar
Which region of your country is best known for its gorgeous landscape?
… is best known …
If I was off sick (or took a day off) one day, would someone else come to
teach this class or would the lesson be cancelled? If …, someone else
would … ~ If …, the lesson would be cancelled
If I say “I’m off now; see you later”, what does the word “off” mean?
If …, … “leaving”
Do painkillers normally come in tablet form? Yes, painkillers …
And what’s the normal dose? It depends, but … two tablets
964 wink blink
What am I doing? You’re winking
What’s the difference between the verbs “wink” and “blink”?
The difference … winking involves closing only
one eye, whereas blinking involves closing both eyes
Do you think it’s a good idea to keep one’s private life distinct from one’s
work life? Yes, … ~ No, …
Why or why not?
Can a haircut make a distinct difference to a person’s appearance? Yes, …
How do you usually occupy your spare time? I usually occupy …
Who are the occupants of the house (or flat) next to yours?
The occupants …
clear up mess a good deal of
When teenagers have a party, is there normally a good deal of mess to
clear up afterwards? Yes, when …
If it were raining and I said “It looks as though it will clear up soon”, what
would I mean? If it were …, … stop raining soon
Which aspect of your job (or studies) do you like the most? The aspect …
carry out efficiency tendency
Would you say you were good at carrying out instructions with great
efficiency, or do you have a tendency to take too long getting things
done? Yes, I’d say … ~ No, I wouldn’t say …
by land by air
Do you prefer to travel by land, by sea, or by air? I prefer …
If you were a teacher and saw one of your students gazing out of the
window during a lesson, would you assume they were not paying
attention? Yes, if I were … ~ No, if I were …
thrill thrilling suspense
When we’re describing films, what do we mean by a thriller?
When …, by a thriller we mean a film with
an exciting story, full of mystery and suspense
966 Do you think the work of a spy would be mostly thrilling or often tedious?
I think …
Which famous person would you be most thrilled to meet? I’d be …
nickname Yes, … ~ No, …
I got … because …
Have you ever had a nickname?
How did you get that nickname?
Do some buses in this town run more frequently on weekdays than at
weekends? Yes, … ~ No, …
drop in drop by
Do you like to be surprised by friends dropping in (dropping by) for a
chat, or do you prefer them to give you a ring to let you know they’re
coming? Yes, I like … ~ No, I don’t like …; I prefer …
on business holidaymaker tip
At a hotel, how can you tell the difference between holidaymakers and
those who are there on business? At a hotel, you can tell …
967 What tip would you offer a holidaymaker who was visiting your country
for the first time? The tip I’d offer … would be …
Do you get irritable if you go without food for a long time? Yes, … ~ No, …
sack get the sack fire
What do we use sacks for? We use sacks for transporting and
storing things like vegetables, especially potatoes
What does the expression “to get the sack” mean? The expression …
to be dismissed from employment
How would you react if you were unfairly fired from a job you liked,
especially if there were mass unemployment at the time? If I were unfairly
…, I’d react by …
What’s a deadline? A deadline is a time or date
before which something has to be finished
Give me an example, please. Our boss has moved the deadline back so
we’ve got an extra week to get everything done
968 all at once
What can we say instead of “suddenly”? … all at once …
Give me an example, please.
We’d just got to the beach when,
all at once, it began to pour down
Why is it important to ensure that the air in a classroom doesn’t become
stale? It’s … because stale air lacks oxygen,
which is essential for the brain to work properly
What do we call the mark left on our skin after a wound has healed?
We call … a scar
get at chemical
How can parents prevent their young children from getting at medicine
bottles or containers with chemicals in them? Parents can … by storing
them on high shelves, or in locked cupboards
grandchild grandson granddaughter
Do your parents have any grandchildren? Yes, my parents have a
grandson, granddaughter etc.
~ No, my parents don’t have any grandchildren
969 prescribe depressed depression
If someone feels constantly depressed, can their doctor prescribe
medicine to help relieve the depression? Yes, if …, their doctor …
Why do people’s minds sometimes go blank when they’re trying to
answer a question in a job interview? People’s minds …
because they feel stressed
Do you believe in the saying “Never put off until tomorrow that which
you can do today”? Yes, … ~ No, …
Why or why not?
Would you be put off going to a restaurant with a good reputation if a
friend told you they’d recently had an awful meal there? Yes, … ~ No, …
Name a sport for which the rules are fairly elementary. ... is a
sport for which ...
What kind of people (i.e. which professions) are well known for charging
absurdly high fees for the work they do?
… are well known for …
970 genuine fake assure
When buying an expensive painting or other work of art, how can you
assure yourself that it is genuine and not a fake? When …, … by asking to
see a certificate, getting a
second opinion from an expert etc.
Of course I don’t approve/ of misbehaviour,/ but I can’t monitor my children/ all the
time,/ and it’d be unnatural/ if they never did anything wrong,/ wouldn’t it?/ The
sailor’s refusal/ to associate himself with the plan/ to cross the channel at night/
had been expected;/ it was hardly logical./ Walking into court,/ Pete felt both
scared and embarrassed./ A climber’s chief concern/ is always the quality/ of his
equipment./ She has superior knowledge/ of the subject/ and we definitely aim/ to
take advantage of that./ The primary reason/ for baby pigeons/ being such a rare
sight/ is that they tend to remain in the nest/ for such a long time./ Image, slide,
rude, click, anyway.
971 Emphasis: Inversions after negative or limiting adverbials
Some examples of negative adverbials are: “not only”, “no sooner”,
“never”, “by no means”, and “under no circumstances”.
Some examples of limiting adverbials are: “rarely”, “hardly”, “barely”,
Sometimes we put adverbials like these at the start of a sentence in
order to emphasize their meaning. When we do this, we need to use an
inversion, or, in other words, we use the same form and word order as
we would use for questions, even though we are not asking a question.
For example, instead of saying “I have never met such a rude man”, we
can emphasize the idea of “never” by saying “Never have I met such
a rude man”. Notice that, even though this sentence is not a question,
we say “have I met” rather than “I have met”. Another example of an
inversion is “Hardly had I walked into my office when the phone started
ringing”. This means that the phone started ringing immediately after I
walked into my office.
OK, I’m going to give you two or three words, and I want you to make a
sentence starting with those words.
Not only … Not only can she speak
French but she can also speak German
Under no circumstances … Under no circumstances
should you press this red button!
No sooner … No sooner had she graduated from
university than she found a fantastic job
972 And now, make the following sentences more emphatic by using an
I had barely sat down when the cat jumped onto my lap Barely had I sat
down when the cat jumped onto my lap
He isn’t a friend of mine by any means By no means is he a friend of mine
She rarely calls her parents these days
Rarely does she call
her parents these days
Mary had no idea that we had arranged a party for her birthday
Little did Mary know that we
had arranged a party for her birthday
Do you make notes in the margin of your Student’s Book? Yes, … ~ No, …
stand a chance participate
In a major sporting competition such as the Olympics, do you think it’s
important for everyone participating to believe they stand a chance of
winning? Yes, in a … ~ No, in a …
How do you feel when you go to buy something you’ve really been
looking forward to getting and discover that the shop has sold out?
When I go …, I feel disappointed and frustrated
973 call in call by
The phrasal verb “call in” means “visit briefly”, but notice the following
difference in structure: we call in on someone, whereas we call in at a
We can also call by (at) a place.
Give me an example of “call in on”, please. John was off sick, so I called
in on him to check if he needed anything
Do you often call in at your local supermarket on your way home after
school (or work)? Yes, … ~ No, …
Why might someone need to call by (at) their office even though it’s their
day off? Someone might need …
needless to say
Give me an example of the expression “needless to say”, please.
Angela was offered a job
yesterday; needless to say, she’s delighted
phase rebel grumpy stubborn
cope on top of
What do parents mean when they say their son or daughter is going
through a difficult phase? When parents …, they
mean their son or daughter is going
through a temporary period of rebelling
against them, and is difficult to cope with,
perhaps because they’re being grumpy and stubborn
Do some university students find it hard to cope if they have to do a
part-time job on top of studying for their degree? Yes, …
If you won £20,000,000 in a lottery, how much would you donate to
charity? If …, I’d …
tradition traditional costume
Describe a traditional costume or a traditional dish from this (or your)
country. A traditional …
racket gang gangster
decent the 1920s (1930s etc.)
If a gang of young men were making a racket outside your house in the
middle of the night, would you call the police, go out and talk to them, or
just try to ignore the racket? If …, I’d …
How much do you reckon a decent tennis racket costs these days?
I reckon …
Were most of the rackets in America in the 1920s and 1930s controlled by
gangsters? Yes, …
If you were travelling at 80 kph, what would your speed be in miles per
hour? If …, my speed would be 50 mph
vacuum A vacuum cleaner works by sucking
dirt up through a tube into a container
How does a vacuum cleaner work?
975 jar honey
What kind of food do we buy in jars? We buy jam, honey, coffee etc. in jars
thanks to fabulous
Give me an example of “thanks to”, please. Thanks to his fabulous work,
we were all able to go home early
About how long after taking a dose of painkillers for a headache would
you expect the pain to start wearing off? I’d expect …
Why do grandparents often make a fuss of t heir grandchildren when they
see them? Grandparents …
If you checked into a hotel room and found it hadn’t been cleaned
properly, would you make a fuss about it? Yes, if I … ~ No, if I …
What do we mean by a fussy eater? By …, we mean someone who
is difficult to please as regards food
because there are many things they don’t like eating
976 routine task vary
Describe your daily routine, please. I wake up at …, and then …
Would you prefer a job where you had a regular routine or one where
your tasks varied from day to day? I’d prefer …
break up asset
When a married couple break up, do you think their assets should always
be divided equally in the divorce? Yes, … ~ No, …
Why do many people feel uneasy when they think about the future of the
planet? Many …
district continent settlement
What’s generally the difference between the words “district” and
“region”? The difference … is that “district” is generally used
to describe a distinct part of a city for official reasons,
whereas “region” is generally used to describe a distinct
part of a larger area such as a country, continent, or even the world
Where were the first English settlements on the continent of North
America: on the east coast or the west coast? The first … on the east coast
977 grocer greengrocer specialize
What’s the difference between a grocer and a greengrocer?
The difference … a grocer sells all kinds of
food and everyday household goods, whereas a
greengrocer specializes in selling fruit and vegetables
try out try on hi-fi speaker
Which of these sentences is correct: “He tried out the hi-fi speakers
before buying them” or “He tried on the hi-fi speakers before buying
them”? “He tried out …” is correct
Why? Because “try on” is only used when we’re talking about
clothes, and accessories such as hats, items of jewellery etc.
So give me an example of “try on”, please. I tried on the hat
but it looked absurd!
Word pool 1: revision exercise
For each sentence below, choose one word from the word pool that fits
correctly in the gap.
doll knuckle tram glove calendar
fringe spark fountain chapter pirate
cable tractor peach moustache diagram
1 Every on Donald’s right hand felt sore after the boxing
2 Do you want to try a ? They’re very sweet, and from our
978 3 I can explain my plan by drawing a simple if you prefer.
4 His career as a came to a sudden and violent end.
5 You drive the , but go slowly; I’ll be behind you on the
cart with the apples.
6 Mary’s is rather long; you can hardly see her eyes.
7 The climate’s so dry that it only takes a single to start a
8 The children kept cool by splashing around in the in the
9 I have no idea where this goes. It just seems to
disappear into the ceiling.
10 This is my favourite because it’s got a blue and yellow
dress, just like mine!
11 There’s a that runs quite regularly from here to the city
12 The main character isn’t introduced until the seventh ,
which is unusual.
13 According to my , your birthday’s on a Saturday this
14 I didn’t recognize him at all; he’s shaved his off!
15 If you see a anywhere, tell me; I’ve lost one and it’s
979 Common prefixes (1) respectively
A prefix is a group of letters we add at the beginning of a word, usually to
change the meaning of the word. For example, the prefixes “over-” and
“under-” add the meanings of “too much” and “too little” respectively.
So, the verb “overeat” means “eat too much” and “undereat” means
“eat too little”.
Some other common prefixes are: “re-” (meaning “again”), “co-”
(meaning “together”), “un-” (meaning “not” or “opposite of”), and
“inter-” (meaning “between”).
What meaning can the prefix “re-” add to a word? The prefix … “again” …
Give me an example, please. At his first attempt, he failed to get into the
university, but then he reapplied and succeeded
What meaning can the prefix “co-” add to a word?
The prefix … “together” …
Give me an example, please. Although the two nations used to be
enemies, they coexist very happily today
What meaning can the prefix “un-” add to a word?
The prefix … “not” or “opposite of” …
Give me an example, please. It was unprofessional of him not
to unplug the TV before trying to fix it
What meaning can the prefix “inter-” add to a word? The prefix …
980 Give me an example, please. The hotel offers
interconnecting rooms for family groups
reserve can emergency boot
If you had called to reserve a table at a restaurant but then discovered on
arriving that there was no record of the booking, what would you expect
to happen? If …, I’d expect …
Why do some drivers carry a can full of petrol in the boot of their car?
Some drivers … so that they always
have petrol in reserve in case of an emergency
terror terrorist citizen
Why is a terrorist called a terrorist? A terrorist is … because he tries to create
terror among the innocent citizens of a country
Give me an example of the adjective “outrageous”, please. I’m never
inviting him to a party at my
place again; his behaviour was outrageous!
exhaust nervous exhaustion get away
finish up heart attack
How soon do you think it’ll be before the world exhausts its supply of oil?
I think it’ll be … before …
981 What often happens to people who work in a high-pressure business
environment and never even get away for an annual holiday?
People who … often suffer from
high blood pressure, nervous exhaustion,
and could even finish up having a heart attack
Which academic subjects do you feel are most relevant to young people’s
needs in the real world? I feel …
Do small children sometimes stamp their feet when they’re cross?
Yes, small …
respond tense stiffen
grip gripping excite
How do people usually respond physically in very tense situations? In …,
people usually respond physically by
becoming tense themselves; their bodies
stiffen, they grip any available object, like the
arm of a chair, and might become nervously excited
Name a film you’ve seen that you found gripping from start to finish.
A film I’ve seen that … is …
What do we call a baby cat? We call … a kitten
982 And a baby dog? We call … a puppy
armed go off gunman
Are most police officers in your country armed or unarmed? Most …
If you heard a gun go off in the street and then saw the gunman running
past you, would you go after him? Yes, if I … ~ No, if I …
Why or why not? Because I’d consider it my duty
as a citizen ~ Because I’d stand no chance
against an armed and perhaps desperate criminal
at a time
Do you find that troubles seldom come to you one at a time but in threes
and fours? Yes, … ~ No, …
visible Yes, … ~ No, …
Is the moon often visible during the day?
Can you think of anything which is quite lawful, but which you think
should be made unlawful? Yes, … ~ No, …
hand in notice
How do you feel when you hand in your papers at the end of an exam?
When …, I feel worried, relieved it’s all over etc.
What do we mean when we say that someone hands in their notice?
When …, we mean that they inform their
employer that they are going to leave their job
youngster hang out hang around
Where do youngsters often choose to hang out when they’re not at
school? Youngsters …
Do students at this school sometimes hang around after class to speak to
their teacher? Yes, …
How does a doctor obtain a small sample of blood from a patient?
A doctor … by pricking the end
of the patient’s finger with a needle
in ink (pencil etc.) candidate examiner
Why are candidates in an exam usually asked to write in ink rather than in
pencil? Candidates in an … to make it easier
for examiners to read, so that what they
write is permanent and can’t be changed later etc.
984 keep off
What does a notice saying “Keep off the grass” mean? A notice …
don’t walk on the grass
tank volume overflow
author earphones headphones
When did military tanks first appear in battle? Military tanks …
during the First World War
What would happen if the volume of water poured into a water tank was
too great? If …, the tank would overflow
If an author you liked a lot wrote a story so long that it had to be
published in two or even three volumes, would that put you off reading
it? Yes, … ~ No, …
What’s the danger of regularly listening to music at high volume on
earphones or headphones? The danger … is that
one can damage one’s hearing
vegetarian vegan dairy
What’s the difference between a vegetarian and a vegan? The difference …
a vegetarian chooses not to eat meat or fish,
whereas a vegan also chooses not to eat anything else
that comes from an animal, such as eggs, dairy products etc.
985 extent dictate
If you give someone your opinion on something and they say “I agree
with you to an extent”, what do they mean? If I …, they mean they agree
with me partly but not completely
Is your mood dictated by the weather to some extent? Yes, my mood’s …
to some extent ~ No, my mood isn’t … at all
bubble … is a common …
Name a common drink that contains bubbles.
What do you eat when you need a quick energy boost between meals?
When …, I eat …
community resident folk
Is there a strong sense of community among the residents of the area
where you live? Yes, … ~ No, …
What do we mean by folk music? By …, we mean the traditional
music of a particular community
986 weep – wept – wept
The verb “to weep” means to cry as a result of emotion (rather than
physical pain). We usually weep because of sadness, but can also weep
as a result of joy, relief, frustration etc.
What are the three forms of “weep”? The three forms of
“weep” are “weep, wept, wept”
Do people often weep at the funeral of someone they were very close to?
The expression “as for …” means “as regards …” and we use it when we
want to move on to a different aspect of a particular topic. For example,
“The government has made major improvements in education. As for the
health system, however, it still has a great deal of work to do”.
Give me an example of “as for”, please. Sandra thought the film was a bit
of a drag. As for me, I loved every second of it.
Phrase exercise 2
From the four options given with each sentence, choose the one word that
fits correctly in the gap.
1 I didn’t understand everything she was saying about the
computer; that kind of thing is all a bit … me.
( over / against / beside / beyond )
2 I took the … of borrowing one of your pullovers yesterday; I hope
( liberty / choice / licence / advantage )
you don’t mind.
3 I’m sure you can become a successful artist if you … your mind to
4 it. ( put / throw / settle / push )
6 Oh come on; it’s not that bad. Try to look on the … side!
( up / good / bright / optimistic )
The teacher pointed out a few errors in my essay but said that, by
( small / big / little / large )
and …, it was good.
All the students were given a test, but the teacher … an exception
( took / gave / made / did )
in my case because I was ill.
7 Working extra hours today actually works in my …; I’ll be able to
finish early tomorrow, and it’s my birthday!
( favour / advantage / benefit / profit )
8 They should all pass the exam with … colours.
( brilliant / racing / flying / massive )
9 This painting’s rubbish; I’m going to start again from … and do a
( rip / scratch / mark / tear )
10 The programme was made by students at the university, …
( and / any / in / the )
association with Northern TV.
11 The morning was cloudy but the sun came … in the afternoon.
( out / by / in / across )
12 Do you have enough money to … the cost of all the repairs your
( cap / bridge / cover / mask )
13 Players were chosen for the match … the basis of their
performances in the previous four weeks. ( with / on / by / for )
14 He’s asked me for a big favour, which puts me in a difficult …, to