Columbia University Biology Research Paper

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There are several ways that undergraduates can get experience working in a research laboratory:

Work-Study

There are very few such opportunities available, but if you're eligible for work-study, contact Todd Raffa, who will add your name to the list and let you know when something is available.

Volunteer

Most students working in labs do so initially without pay. Positions like this are not "advertised" anywhere; it's up to you to go around and find a professor who could use some help.

First, look through your class schedule and decide how many hours per week you can work. Can you put in one hour each morning? Or do you have one free day when you can spend 5 hours straight in the lab? The times that you have available will help determine which projects you can work on. Keep in mind that you'll need to spend some time on homework, sleeping, and having fun; if you're taking 20 credits this semester, this is not the best time to add a commitment to lab work. Lab experience can make a good academic record look even better, but it won't "rescue" a poor academic record, so don't let the lab work come at the expense of your coursework.

Next, look through the descriptions of the research conducted by scientists at Columbia University in the Departments of Biological Sciences, Chemistry (which includes labs in biochemistry) and Psychology (which includes labs in the neurosciences). These are all on campus, and easy to get to between classes. Many students work on the Health Sciences Campus, on 168th Street, which you can get to in about 15 minutes on the free shuttle bus (or on the 1 uptown subway or M4 bus). The bus leaves about once or twice an hour, so this option is best for those who have several long blocks of time available, rather than just an hour or two between classes. Most students work in the basic science departments:Cell & Molecular Biology, Chemical Biology, Structure and Biophysics, Genetics & Genomics, Neurobiology & Behavior, Microbiology, Pathology. Some professors in the Pharmacology, Physiology & Cellular Biophysics, and clinical departments also have small labs. Read through some of these descriptions, and choose 5 or 6 scientists whose work sounds interesting. These descriptions are actually written for potential graduate students who are trying to decide which lab to work in, so don't be intimidated if you don't understand them. Still, you should be able to get some sense of the general area the scientist is working in, and the kinds of techniques that they use. Don't feel that you have to go to some "big name", established scientist. In most of these labs, which are very large, you won't be working directly with the lab head anyway, but will be assigned to work with a lab technician, graduate student, or postdoctoral fellow.

Once you identify a few potential mentors, you can find their email/phone numbers either on the web pages or in the Columbia directory (At the $ prompt, type in "lookup" followed by the name of the person, and and you'll get their address, email, phone.
For example:

$ lookup marie curie
(No, she's not listed, I just checked.)

Contact these scientists and say that you're an undergraduate student who would like to get some experience working in their lab. You'll either get:

A. No response. If no one answers the phone, it's best to call back later, rather than leaving a voice mail or email, which are easy to ignore when one is busy, as scientists generally are.

B. "No, sorry, I can't take any more students." There are many reasons why a scientist may not want you to work there. Firstly, there may already be a lot of people in that lab, and if everyone is crowded around the same equipment, no one will be able to work very efficiently. Secondly, you will be entering the lab as a novice and someone will have to train you in the techniques that you will use. If the other people in the lab are particularly busy this semester, they may not be able to give you the attention needed to train you. In any event, don't take it personally if you get several rejections. Just go through the list of scientists and choose the next 5 who sound interesting.

C. "Maybe. Come in and we'll talk." Make an appointment to meet the scientist. If the lab is uptown, check the shuttle bus schedule to see when it would be most convenient to schedule a meeting. Here are some things you can do to prepare for an interview:

1. Read the description of their research interests if they've put this on the web. This will probably be too technical for you to understand completely. Find the key terms in this description, look them up in the index of your biology textbook (e.g., Purves or Becker), and read the relevant sections of the text. The professors will not expect you to know about their own research, but they will expect that you remember a little basic biology.

2. Put together a description of your background. This doesn't have to be as formal as a resume, but it will be helpful if you can bring a page that lists: your name, address, email, phone #, science courses (including math and computer sciences) you've taken or are currently taking (and the grades, if they're good; omit them, if they're not), any lab experience you've had, computer skills, career goals, other noteworthy experience. This can be useful both as a conversation starter, and as something for the professor to keep on file, in case it is not possible to make a place for you in the lab right away. Also, bring a timetable that shows your class schedule, so the professor can see the times that you'll be available.

3. The scientist will probably ask whether you've worked in a lab before, and if so, what you did. If you have some lab experience from high school, you should review beforehand in your own mind what you did, so that you'll be able to give a coherent, concise, 3-4 minute description of the purpose of the experiment, the techniques you used, your interpretation of the results.

4. Dress nicely, but casually. This is not a business interview, and you don't want to give the impression that you're so concerned about your three-piece suit or your three-shade nailpolish that you won't be willing to get your hands dirty at the lab bench.

The interview is not a cross-examination, but simply an informal conversation to help the scientist decide whether you seem eager and able to learn, whether you'll get along with the others in the labs, whether your schedule makes it possible to work on a particular project. At the same time, you should be thinking about whether you'd like to work in this particular lab. Most students are very satisfied with whichever lab they work in, but if you feel uncomfortable at the interview (everyone in the lab looks unhappy, the scientist doesn't seem able to explain things in a way that you can understand), you may want to try a different lab.

The type of work you'll be offered will depend in part on how much time you have available. Many students start out by working 5-10 hours/week, doing routine maintenance: feeding animals, ordering supplies, making up solutions, preparing equipment for experiments, and helping other lab workers in their experiments. After getting some experience, students may be given independent projects to work on, but many such projects require a larger time commitment (10-15 hours/week).

Working For Credit

Students can get academic credit for working in a lab, by registering for BIOL UN3500 Independent Research. This is not to be confused with Surf or the Amgen Scholars Program, which fulfill the biology major lab requirement but does not confer academic credit. Generally students register for 3 or 4 credits. A general rule is 4 hours lab time/week/credit, i.e. register for 3 credits for 12 hours of lab time/week and 4 credits from 16 or more. You still have to find a lab to work in, as described under VOLUNTEER. The only difference is that you must make it clear to the scientist that you are looking for a lab to work in for academic credit, and that you will be expected to work on an independent research project for about 12 or 16 hours/week. You can either take this course pass/fail, or for a letter grade. The latter requires you to write a research paper at the end of the semester. (See UN3500 requirements.)

While it's nice to be able to get credit for your lab experience, keep in mind that this means that you're making a commitment to work there for the entire semester. If you're not sure that you want to make this commitment, you may want to volunteer in a lab for one semester first, and then ask the head of the lab if you can continue to work there for credit.

Getting Paid

Some scientists are able to pay for student hourly help from their research grants. This generally happens after the student has some experience in that particular lab.

Summer Research

There are many more opportunities to work in a lab during the summer, when you can devote full-time to research. The Department of Biological Sciences sponsors a SURF program and an Amgen Scholars Program , which provides a $4000 stipend for students to spend ten weeks on an independent research project during the summer. Over 100 students apply, and between 70-90 students are accepted each year.

Applications for this program will be available in the beginning of the spring semester. To get an idea what the program is like, plan to come to the next SURF Symposium (contact Dr. Alice Heicklen for the date of the next Symposium) where last year's SURF students will discuss the research that they did.

There are many other institutions that offer similar programs. As we get information on programs outside Columbia for the summer, we'll post these on the Other summer internships page, which includes internships which were offered in the past. Most of these are offered on a regular basis, so you can contact those programs that interest you for further information.

For specific questions about UN3500, contact Dr. Ron Prywes at mrp6@columbia.edu.

For general questions about undergraduate lab research, and comments or suggestions for this page, contact Dr. Debby Mowshowitz at dbm2@columbia.edu.

Academic Credit

Undergraduates can get academic credit for research by enrolling in UN3500 . Please visit this site for more detailed information.

The Research Paper

Scientific research articles provide a method for scientists to communicate with other scientists about the results of their research. A standard format is used for these articles, in which the author presents the research in an orderly, logical manner. This doesn't necessarily reflect the order in which you did or thought about the work. For detailed instructions on how to write a scientific research paper please visit this "Writing a Scientific Research Article".

SURF and the Amgen Scholars Program 

The Department of Biological Sciences at Columbia University now offers two summer undergraduate research programs to a select group of motivated undergraduate students who will benefit from the opportunity for hands-on laboratory research. This is a chance to experience the joys of discovering something completely new, while learning to overcome the challenges inherent in scientific research. Most students work either in our department on the Morningside Heights campus or in the biomedical labs at Columbia's Health Sciences Center (the free shuttle bus gets you there in fifteen minutes). 

For more detailed information on this program, please visit the SURF and Amgen websites.

Other Summer Interships 

Of course there are other summer internship programs across the country. For a list of various summer biology programs, please visit this site.

Independent Clinical Research

This course will ask potential mentors and students to provide a proposal in which students will gain hands-on experience in a clinical setting, as part of a clinical research project that can be completed within the semester. There are two instructors for this course in Spring 2018: Dr. Deborah Mowshowitz (dbm2@columbia.edu) and Ellie Siddens (mes2314@columbia.edu).

A. Finding a research sponsor

The first step towards doing independent clinical research is finding a sponsor who will supervise your work and receive approval from the mentor for an independent clinical research proposal that will give the student a project which can be initiated and completed within the semester. You must take the initiative to find a sponsor by contacting faculty who do research you are interested in. You can find a spot in a lab/clinic as late as the first week of the semester, but you'll have the best chance at getting into a lab/clinic of your choice if you start looking during the previous semester. NOTE: Starting in fall 2017, research sponsors must be at Columbia University at the Morningside Heights, Manhattanville, or CUMC campus.

B. How to register (4 steps)

You must complete the following steps to register for UN3700. Note that you have to register with the Registrar, as for any other class, AND you have to register with the Department, which requires completion of ALL FOUR STUDENT'S TASKS, listed below, in a timely manner. NOTE: Starting Fall 2017, students can only gain credit for a maximum 2 semesters of UN3700. You may continue working in your lab, but you cannot do it for course credit. 

1. University registration. Register for UN3700 with the Registrar. Students register for 1-3 credits. A general rule is a minimum of 4 hours lab time/week/credit, i.e. register for 1 credit for approximately 4 hours/week, 2 credits for approximately 8 hours/week, or 3 credits for approximately 12 or more hours of lab time/week.

2. Departmental registration. Fill out the on-line registration form. Due Date: As early as possible during the registration period, but definitely no later than one week from start of classes. (Tuesday, January 30 for Spring 2018). No late registration will be accepted without the approval from the instructor.

3. One Page Proposal. After consulting with your sponsor about the project that you will work on, you should write a one-page proposal in clear prose describing the planned work, and submit the proposal to the Biology office (600 Fairchild).  Do not copy your sponsor's grant application or research papers; we want the proposal to be in your own words. Your proposal is due in 600 Fairchild by Friday of the second week of classes (February 2, 2018). You should receive an email either approving your project, or requesting additional information, within a week to 10 days after submitting your proposal. No late proposals will be accepted.

4. Sponsor's Approval Letter. Make sure your sponsor has sent an approval letter by the deadline for departmental registration (Tuesday, January 30 for Spring 2018).

C. Sponsor's Approval Letter 

Ask your sponsor to write a letter by email, 1) confirming that s/he will supervise your work in their lab/clinic, 2) describing in a brief paragraph the work you will be doing, and 3) confirming they are taking on the responsibility of mentoring you, which includes reading and providing a grade for your final paper during finals period. (Sponsors should see the "Grading Guidelines for Mentors" section below). This letter should be sent to Ellie Siddens at mes2314@columbia.edu. The deadline is the same as for on-line registration (Tuesday, January 30 for Spring 2018). Note that the official sponsor must be a faculty member, not a postdoctoral fellow or research associate, though a more junior member of the team may be designated for day-to-day supervision during the semester.

D. Course Requirement: Progress Report.

About 6 weeks into the semester, you must turn in a one-page progress report, describing your work thus far. Most students will not have research results at this point, but the progress report must provide an indication that your project is proceeding in the context of your own understanding of the underlying issues and hypotheses being tested. This report should be submitted to 600 Fairchild by the following deadlines: spring 2018: Monday, March 5.

E. Final Paper

Near the end of the term, you are required to write a paper -- in the style of a scientific research article -- at a level understandable to a scientist who is working in a different area of biology or medicine. Do not copy or paraphrase your mentor's grants or papers. The final paper for BIOL3700 should be written in time for the lab director to read it and recommend a grade to the course director, in time for a final grade to be assigned inside the period for grade submissions in any given semester.  The paper should be in the student's own words.  It should not be a rehash of a grant proposal nor the draft of a research paper from the student's lab.  It should contain sections that cover the scientific problem being studied, the way in which a disprovable hypothesis is being tested, the student's role in the project, results as of the end of the semester, and any observations the student may have about the experience.  The length need not be greater than 10 double-spaced pages. The paper must be submitted to Ellie Siddens in the 600 Fairchild by the last day of the reading period, i.e., before the first day of finals - Spring 2018 semester deadline: Thursday, May 3. A pdf of the paper should be sent to Ellie Siddens (mes2314@columbia.edu), Dr. Mowshowitz (dbm2@columbia.edu), and your mentor.

We also ask that you submit a one-page summary of what work you, the student, conducted in the lab. This should be written in plain English, rather than in the style of a scientific research paper. This should be submitted along with your final paper.

Here are some guidelines on writing your final paper.

F. Sponsor’s Grade:

After reading your paper, your sponsor should submit a grade to Ellie Siddens (mes2314@columbia.edu). The deadline for receiving this grade is the last day of finals (Spring 2018 semester: May 11).

The grade should be both based on both your clinical work and your research paper.

Dr. Mowshowitz will assign your final grade, based on your progress report, a review of your paper, and your sponsor's recommendation. Important: you must have submitted all the information required ON TIME in order to receive a full grade.

G. Grading Guidelines for Mentors:

The grades for this course are not curved.  Students are expected to do credible work, but not necessarily to have solved a major problem.  To maintain a rough parity of grade from lab to lab, we ask mentors to hold to the following guidelines:

 The student who gains both experience and acceptance as an articulate and productive member of a team, should receive a grade in the A range [A-, A, or RARELY, A+].  An A+ student should not be expected on average to appear more than once in a number of years in a given setting. A grade of A+ requires a detailed explanation to Dr. Mowshowitz as to the reasons for this extraordinary accomplishment.

 The student who has a routine, uneventful lab experience should receive a grade in the B range [B-, B or B+].

 The student who is episodically unreliable or lazy should receive a grade in the C range [C-, C, or C+].

 A student tracking worse than that, should be brought to the attention of Dr. Mowshowitz by the mentor early enough to avoid a disaster [a D or an F]. Note that not every student should expect to earn an A or A-, not to mention an A+.

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